|CREDITS||5 credits during the 2nd year of 9916 ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES (L-32) GENOVA|
|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||FIS/07|
|TEACHING LOCATION||GENOVA (ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES)|
Prerequisites (for future units)
A simple but accurate introduction to some physical phenomena relevant in the environmental field.
In the class, some of the most significant physical phenomena in the field of the environmental sciences are deepened. Among these: acoustics and noise, electromagnetic waves and pollution, atmospheric pollution, radioactivity and environmental contamination.
Understand and perform simple calculation on radioactive decay
Understand and perform simple calculations on exposure to non-ionizing radiation
Understand and perform simple calculations on acoustic and perception of sound
Understand and perform simple calculations in the climatic and atmospheric pollution field
lectures and class-room exercises
Environmental radioactivity: the structure and characteristics of the atomic nucleus, equilibrium between Coulombian and nuclear forces and consequences on the stability of the nuclei. Radioactive decay: average life, half-life, activity. Observed radioactive decays in nature and electromagnetic de-exitacion. Exposure to ionizing radiation and dosimetric quantities. Dosage limits for the population and workers: regulatory references.
Non-ionizing Radiation (NIR): Electromagnetic wave spectrum, distinction between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Interaction of NIRs with matter and definition of specific absorption rate (SAR). NIR biological effects and regulatory limits. Power transmitted by electromagnetic waves and relationship with the electric and magnetic fields.
Acoustics: definition of sound and sound pressure, acoustic waves. Flat and spherical waves, propagation and sound velocity, Doppler effect, interference and diffraction. Definition of Level of Sound Pressure Intensity and Acoustic Power: the decibel scale. Human ear operation and perception of sound: isophonic curves and weighting curves. Audible and Extra-Noise Acoustic Effects: Environmental and Workplace Reference Standards. Notes on the operation of sound meters for environmental surveys.
Atmospheric pollution: composition and structure of the Earth's atmosphere, definition and classification of atmospheric pollutants. Spectrum of solar and terrestrial radiation and energy balance of the planet: the greenhouse effect and climatic forcing. Characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter: equivalent aerodynamic diameter, dimensional distributions, sources. Definition of PM10 and PM2.5: effects of atmospheric particulate matter on health, regulation and reference limits. Atmospheric visibility. Guidelines for PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring.
The class syllabus does not refer to a specific text but much of the topics can be thoroughly studied in general physical texts such as:
- Halliday, Resnik, Walker: Fundamentals of Physics and Modern Physics - ZANICHELLI
On the teacher's webpage (https://www.ge.infn.it/~prati) all the slides used in the classroom and exame texts are available.
lectures and class-room exercises
as indicated in the main web site
Written test composed by four questions/exercises, one for each of the four topics discussed in the class. The test must be completed in two hours
A constant presence at the lectures is highly reccomended