|CREDITS||6 credits during the 1st year of 9012 PHYSICS (LM-17) GENOVA|
|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||FIS/07|
|TEACHING LOCATION||GENOVA (PHYSICS)|
The class deals with the fundamentals of the effects and dispersion of the pollutants in atmsosphere It is divided into 4 blocks:
1) Introduction to air pollutants and their effects on the environment, climate and health
2) meteorology in the boundary layer
3) modeling for the dispersion of pollutants into the atmosphere
4) methodologies for assessing the impact of polluting sources (receptor models)
The class aims to provide the basic elements of atmospheric physics related to the boundary layer, which are relevant for the dispersion and transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the computational techniques for the numerical simulation of dispersive phenomena and the basis of diagnostic models based on experimental data (receptor models) will be addressed. The course as a whole aims to present state-of-the-art techniques in the field
The student will be able to acquire the basic skills necessary for the use of numerical models for the evaluation of the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere and of receptor models
Teachers: P. Prati (email@example.com) assisted by contract professors: P. Brotto (firstname.lastname@example.org) and M. Corazza (email@example.com). Objective: the course aims to provide the basic elements of atmospheric physics related to the boundary layer or relevant for the dispersion and transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the computational techniques for the numerical simulation of dispersive phenomena and the basis of diagnostic models based on experimental data (receptor models) will be addressed. The course as a whole aims to present state-of-the-art techniques in the field. The course consists of an introduction and three modules
: Introduction (P.Prati) Composition of the Earth's atmosphere, classification of pollutants (2 h) Effects on the health of air pollutants: state of the art and legislation (2 h) Pollution atmospheric and climatological forcing: greenhouse effect, cloudiness, visibility (2h) Outline of air pollutants monitoring techniques (4 h)
"Meteorology" module (M. Corazza) The module will provide an introduction to atmospheric physics and numerical modeling meteorology, with particular regard to the preparatory aspects of the study of pollutant dispersion, subject of the second module. After a brief description of the composition and the vertical structure of the earth's atmosphere, some basic concepts of thermodynamics and the criteria of stability will be discussed, after which the equations that regulate atmospheric motions and some elementary applications will be introduced. The characteristic processes of the so-called planetary boundary layer will then be described, the portion closest to the earth's surface, which play a decisive role in the dispersion of pollutants. In the last part of this cycle of lessons will be introduced the numerical models for the simulation of the evolution of the atmosphere and for the meteorological forecasts, from the global scale to the microscale, with a nod to the concept of atmospheric predictability. Finally, the operation of a state-of-the-art meteorological model will be briefly illustrated, with some concrete examples of application. Earth's atmosphere: composition, vertical structure and main dynamics (6h) Elements of thermodynamics of dry air and humid air The concept of air particle, adiabatic processes and vertical thermal gradient Stability criteria and convective phenomena Equations of motion and analysis of scale, geostrophic and hydrostatic balance The atmospheric boundary layer (4h) Fundamental processes and characteristic parameters Daytime cycle of the boundary layer Atmospheric local-scale (breezes) conditions Stability conditions and effects on pollutant dispersion Numerical modeling and meteorological forecasting from the scale planetary to the local (6h) Prognostic models (global and limited area) and diagnostic models Predictability of the atmosphere and probabilistic forecasts The meteorological model WRF: formulation and examples of application
Module "dispersion of pollutants" (P. Brotto) In the second module of the course will be addressed the theme of the spill of polluting material into the atmosphere. The mathematical bases of the main simulation models will be briefly introduced (Eulerian, Gaussian and Lagrangian) and the mechanisms of transport, chemical balance and ground deposition that intervene in the dispersive phenomenon will be illustrated. The structure of a modeling chain for the simulation of air quality on a regional and urban scale will be described and some examples of numerical simulation code will be provided. Finally, 6 hours are scheduled for the execution of a guided exercise in which the student will study a simplified emissive scenario which will have to assess the atmospheric impact in the context of pre-established meteorological conditions. Models of simulation of atmospheric dispersion (4h) Gaussian models Eulerian models Lagrangian models The phenomenon of deposition on the ground (1h) The main chemical processes in the atmosphere (2h) Ozone cycle Secondary aerosol formation The modeling chain for quality simulation air (2h) Structure (inventories emissions + weather preprocessor + dispersive photochemical code) Examples of commercial and open source numerical codes Example applied and guided exercise (2h + 4h)
"Receptor models" module (P. Prati) In the last module the so-called "receptor models" will be introduced, that is a class of multivariate statistical analysis methods that, starting from the measurement of the concentration of pollutants in a site (the " receptor "), make it possible to identify the" sources "(ie the chemical-physical processes) of emission and their absolute and relative impact. These "apportioning the sources" techniques are complementary to those described in the second module. Receptor modeling: general principles, characteristics and limits (3 h) The "Chemical Mass Balance" (2 h) The "Positive Matrix Factorization" (2h)
Some texts on specific topics will be suggested. All the didacic material (slides) will be available in the web.
PAOLO PRATI (President)
II Semester, detail will be fixed at the beginning of 2019
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The exam will be oral. The student will have to answer a question for each module of the class
The student must demonstrate the ability to critically discuss the contents of the class. Her/his knowledge of the discussed topics as well as her/his synthesis and communication skills will also be assessed.
Further informatio at the website https://www.ge.infn.it/~prati/Fisica%20dell'atmosfera%20e%20dispersione…