|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/12|
You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
Prerequisites (for future units)
This unit is a prerequisite for:
|MODULES||This unit is a module of:|
Clinical biochemistry studies the clinical significance of laboratory tests. During the course of Biochemistry 2, we will start to address some of the topics in clinical biochemistry which will be further dealt with in more depth in the course of Medical Semiotics (3rd year). This is your first impact with laboratory medicine, which represents a key part of the diagnostic reasoning process.
The aim of the clinical biochemistry part of the course is to allow the student to acquire basic knowledge on the clinical-diagnostic significance of some of the laboratory tests of the so-called “clinical chemistry profile”.
In particular, the student will acquire knowledge regarding the "normal range" of the clinical chemistry values described during the course and how these values can be modified in the tissue and organ diseases exemplified in the lessons. Moreover, the student should be able to apply this knowledge to develop simple diagnostic reasoning, starting from the results of the clinical chemistry parameters described during the course.
Plenary lessons (provided on the Teams platform) will provide information on the normal values of the basic parameters of the "clinical chemistry profile" and on the dynamic range of some of these values under conditions of tissue or organ disease. Simple clinical cases will be discussed to allow students to understand the role of laboratory medicine in the clinical reasoning underlying a diagnostic process.
Haemoglobin: normal values and pathogenetic definition of anemia, blood count parameters, haemoglobinopathies and thalassemias; laboratory indicators of iron metabolism, serum protein electrophoresis and diagnostic significance.
Lipoproteins: classification, function, normal lipidemic values, cardiovascular risk stratification principles, classification of hyperlipoproteinemias; effect of insulin, glucagon, and extra-pancreatic hormones on circulating lipoprotein levels.
Non-protein nitrogen compounds in serum (urea, amino acids, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia): normal concentration, main causes of increase; creatinine as an indicator of glomerular filtration, estimation and calculation of GFR.
Spectrophotometry principles applied to assays of enzymes and metabolites
B12 metabolism and folates: causes of deficit (pernicious anemia and alcoholism) and laboratory diagnosis.
Monoclonal antibodies: generation strategy, main biomedical applications.
Diabetes mellitus: classification, pathogenetic mechanisms, laboratory diagnostic criteria, incretins, ketogenesis in T1D, metabolic acidosis and respiratory compensation (haemogas-analysis), blood glucose, ketonuria and glycosuria tests; biochemical mechanisms of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy.
Main methods of hormone assay: ELISA, RIA, chemi-luminescence methods.
Markers of hepatocellular function: functional and enzymatic heterogeneity of hepatocytes; localization and function of enzymes of clinical interest in hepatocytes, entity of increase in serum in different liver diseases, laboratory indicators of chronic alcoholism, indicators of cholestasis.
The laboratory in the study of striated muscle function: indicators of myocellular necrosis, skeletal and cardiac muscle as endocrine organs.
Indicators of nutritional status.
The laboratory in the study of respiratory function: haemogas analysis
Main metabolic changes in cancer cells: oncometabolites.
on-line available slides and Biochemistry with clinical aspects, Devlin, Edises
Office hours: upon appointment by e-mail (email@example.com) Office: DIMES, section Biochemistry, Viale Benedetto XV 1 tel 010-3538161
SANTINA BRUZZONE (President)
GIANLUCA DAMONTE (President)
ELENA ZOCCHI (President and Coordinator of Integrated Course)
as on calendar
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The exam will verify the attainment of the teaching objectives, by means of written or of oral questions, depending on the prescriptions imposed by the SARS-CoV2 emergency. The final grade is expressed in degrees (up to 30, with the possibility of the "cum laude"), and the exam will be passed with at least 18/30 points.
The clinical biochemistry exam will explore whether the student knows the normal range of the basic clinical chemistry values described during the course and the variation of these values under conditions of organ or tissue damage discussed during the lessons. The student should also demonstrate the ability to use these clinical chemistry parameters in simple diagnostic processes.