|CREDITS||10 credits during the 2nd year of 8756 Biotechnology (L-2) GENOVA|
|TEACHING LOCATION||GENOVA (Biotechnology)|
Prerequisites (for future units)
|MODULES||This unit is composed by:|
The Course of Microbiology, General Pathology, and Immunology is meant to give Biotecnology students an understanding of the main pathogenic microorganisms and knowledge of important aspects of the immune response against pathogens and cancer cells. The Course gives also insights into the pathogenesis of processes such as inflammation and neoplastic transformation.
Knowing fundamental, ancillary, and peculiar bacterial structures as an extrinsic cause of general illness and, particularly, infectious. Knowing the ways of bacterial damage to cells and to the human body, toxic, inflammatory and inhibiting the immune surveillance. Knowing human viruses structure and pathogenicity. Knowing the fundamental structures of eukaryotic microorganisms, protozoa and yeasts. Knowing antibacterial drugs. Knowing the main lines of microbiological, direct and indirect diagnostics and vaccine prescriptions. Knowing the existence, nomenclature and role of bacteria belonging to the normal human microbial population and the existence, nomenclature and role of the most important pathogenic bacteria and viruses in human medicine. Knowledge of the main mechanisms underlying the inflammatory process and the neoplastic transformation. In-depth knowledge of the main molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune response (natural and adaptive) against pathogens and tumors. Knowledge of hypersensitivity reactions and related conditions.
Knowledge of fundamental differences between multicellular organisms and microorganisms, and between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, basic and ancillary structures of bacterial cells, genetic and peculiarities of bacterial cells, bacterial spores in general, and spore forming bacteria causing human disease. Knowledge of differences between saprophytic and parasite bacteria and the existence of exogenous and endogenous infections, the direct and indirect bacterial pathogenic mechanisms.
Knowledge of general, direct and indirect microbiological diagnostics, bacteriological diagnostics, antibacterial drugs, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, mechanisms of genetic onset and phenotype. Knowledge of major protozoa and yeasts. of medical interest and related diagnostic modes
Knowledge of structure of viruses in general and DNA and RNA viruses in particular, of replication and viral pathogenicity. Knowledge of viral diagnostics, direct and indirect. Knowledge of non-pathogenic parasitic bacteria, their nomenclature and localization in different districts of the human body. Knowledge of medical classification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and yeasts of medical interest.
Knowledge of vaccine prescriptions, classification and microbiology meaning.
The part of General Pathology gives in-depth knowledge on the inflammatory process The concepts of angioflogosis and histoflogosis will be defined and characterized. Important aspects of general oncology will be addressed, such as the definitions of oncogene, tumor marker and metastasis. The classification of tumors on the basis of behavior, histogenesis, grading and staging will be defined.
About Immunology, the physiology of the immune system and the peculiar feature of innate and adaptive immune response will be deeply characterized. Finally, some of the principal pathological aspects of immune system will be described.
Frontal lessonsand laboratory.
Basic differences between multi-cellular organisms and microorganisms, and between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Bacterial cell structure
Peculiar genetics and metabolism of bacterial cells
Saprophytic and parasite bacteria. Exogenous and endogenous infections
Direct and indirect bacterial pathogenicity
General and bacteriology microbiological diagnostics
Antibacterial drugs and resistances
Classification and structure of protozoa of medical interest
Classification and structure of yeasts of medical interest
Viral pathogenicity and viral diagnosis. Vaccine prescriptions
Classification of non-pathogenic human bacteria and related human districts
Medical classification of main pathogenic bacteria patogeni, viruses , protozoa and yeasts
- The inflammatory process
Definition and causes of angioflogosis
Active and passive hyperemia: causes and consequences
Inflammatory oedema: causes and different exudates
Cellular and plasmatic mediators
Histoflogosis: pathogenesis and classification
Hints on tuberculosis and syphilis
Modern definition of neoplasia
Cancer cells: atypical morphology, metabolism and behavior
Main concepts of tumor marker
Initiation, promotion and progression in carcinogenesis
Metastasis: definition and implications of tumor spread
Oncogenes: definition of and their mechanisms of activation
Hints on genetic predisposition to cancer
Causes of cancer: physical, chemical and biological factors
Classification of tumors on the basis of: behavior (malignant/benign), histogenesis, grading and staging
The Immune System: Cells and Tissues of the Immune System.
General features of the Innate and Adaptive Immune response.
The Innate Immunity Receptors. The Complement System.
Natural Killer Cells (NK). Innate lynphoid cells (ILC). Dendritic Cells (Myeloid and Plasmacitoid).
The Adaptive Immune Response. Clonal selection Theory.
Origin and maturation of T and B lymphocytes. The Antigen receptors gene rearrangement (Immunoglobulin and T Cell receptors)
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) . The antigen processing and presentation to T Lymphocytes.
Activation of T Lymphocytes. Effector mechanisms of Cell mediated Immunity. Cytotoxic and Helper T cells subpopulations
B cell activation and Antibody production. The effector mechanisms of Humoral Immunity
Immunity to Pathogens. The Hypersensitivity Reactions. The immunity to tumors
Microbiology: Through computer support, students are given lectures written by the teacher, summarizing lessons delivered.
Molecular Pathology: G.M. Pontieri, Elementi di patologia generale per i corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie. III Edizione PICCIN.
Immunology: P.Parham, Il sistema Immunitario, EdiSes; AK Abbas, AH Lichtmann, Le basi dell’Immunologia, ELSEVIER.
VINCENZO DI PILATO (President)
MARIA CRISTINA MINGARI (President)
GABRIELLA PIETRA (President)
ROBERTA RICCIARELLI (President)
Frontal lessonsand laboratory.
March 1, 2018
The exam takes place orally in the presence of the teachers of the disciplines concerned.
The student answering to the questions formulated by the teachers must demonstrate to be able to critically discuss all the topics covered by the application.
The oral examination consist in a 30 minutes interview in the presence of the Course teachers. During the examination the student should demonstrate the ability to critically discuss all the subjects covered in the questions. Through the discussion of different topics, the committee verifies the fulfillment of the expected learning outcomes.
At the end of the oral examination, teachers elaborate a mark deriving from the weighted average of the partial marks and from an overall judgment/evaluation of the student.
Available dates for examination will be 2 for the winter session (January-February) and 5 for the summer session (June-September).
In order to attend the oral examination, students will have to register on the website (https://servizionline.unige.it/studenti/esami/prenotazione) at least four days before the examination date.
Verification of learning through the oral examination allows students to verify the actual acquisition of the expected learning outcomes.
To pass the exam, the student must demonstrate:
- to know the etiological bases and the pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases and to know how to analyze the main cellular and molecular aspects;
- understand the different immunological mechanisms involved in the immune response and some of the pathologies responsible for defects in the functioning of the immune system (Hypersensitivity reactions).
Verification of learning is carried out through the oral exam, aimed at verifying the real acquisition by the student of the expected learning outcomes.
In order to pass the exam the student will have:
- to know the etiological basis and the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases and how to analyze their main cellular and molecular aspects;
- to understand the different immunological mechanisms involved in the immune response and to know some of the diseases associated to the dysfunction of the immune system ( the Four Hypersensitivity Reactions)
The following items will contribute to the final mark:
- ability to critically discuss the requested topics;
- accuracy, clarity, synthesis and fluency;
- competence in the subject;
- speaking ability and correct use of terminology.