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PATOLOGY

CODE 80811
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
CREDITS
  • 5 cfu during the 4th year of 8745 MEDICINA E CHIRURGIA(LM-41) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR MED/08
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER Annual
    PREREQUISITES
    Prerequisites (for future units)
    This unit is a prerequisite for:
    • MEDICINE AND SURGERY 8745 (coorte 2018/2019)
    • PEDIATRICS 67546
    • MEDICINE 67519
    • GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS 67559
    • SURGERY I 67505
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    The course of PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY AND CLINICAL CORRELATIONS deals with

    • the pathological bases of diseases,
    • the macro and microscopic lesions associated with them,
    • the histological, cytological, molecular and autoptic techniques,
    • the interpretation of lesions with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive purposes.

    It is therefore a course that opens up to the understanding many of the major neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases.
    In other words, this course is a crucial step for the growth.of the future physician.

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    To make known the pathogenetic mechanisms and morphological lesions that accompany the most common diseases, with particular emphasis on the most significant changes to the diagnostic and prognostic definition of the disease.

    To provide the basis for understanding the classification principles of inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic diseases.

    At the end of the course, the student is expected to have acquired the ability to request histo- and cyto-pathogy exams appropriately and to correctly interpret the diagnostic reports in the light of the acquired knowledge.

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The course is divided into several parts that concern

    • The techniques used in histopathology, cytopathology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and molecular pathology.

    • Indications and purposes of autopsy.

    • The systemic pathology of the various organs and apparatus.

    • The correlations between macro and microscopic lesions and clinical findings.

    • For neoplastic disease, prognostic and predictive factors of  therapeutic response.

    • Guidelines for biopsy and cytopathology.

    • The significance and value of microscopic and molecular findings for the definition of various diseases.

    • The course also includes a professional part in which diagnostic cases are analyzed, highlighting how to require pathological exams and how a report is interpreted. This part also includes the discussion of clinical-pathological cases with digital microscopy.

    PREREQUISITES

    Knowledge of anatomy and normal human histology.
    Knowledge of the main cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diseases.

    TEACHING METHODS

    Plenary lessons in classroom and slide seminars.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    TOPICS TREATED IN THE III YEAR, 2nd SEMESTER
    GENERAL TOPICS

    The purpose and techniques of the necroscopic examination
    Clinical Pathology Anatomy, Surgical Pathology, Different Types of Biopsy
    Indications and limits of the intraoperative examination (frozen sections)
    Applications and limits of exfoliative, abrasive, and thin needle aspiration cytology.
    Anatomy-pathological diagnostics techniques: routine histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electronic microscopy and molecular investigations.
    Mechanisms of oncogenesis and oncogenesis at multiple stages. Classification, grading and staging criteria for neoplasms.
    DERMATOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY, REUMATOLOGY AND OSTEOARTICULAR PATHOLOGY
    Basal cell and squamous epidermal cancer. Preneoplastic lesions and risk factors
    Nevi and melanomas: risk factors, classification criteria, morphological aspects, histoprognostic correlations and natural history
    Generalities on osteomyelitis and osteoporosis
    Inflammatory and degenerative joint disease
    CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
    Coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction (causes and mechanisms, morphology and evolution)
    Endocarditis and valvulopathy (classification, pathology and complications)
    Cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomegaly. Congestive heart failure
    Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Diagnostic role of endomyocardial biopsy
    Pericarditis and haemopericardium
    Sudden cardiac death: morphological aspects
    Aneurysms and degenerative pathology of large vases: morphological aspects
    Vasculitis: morphological aspects
    Pulmonary Edema, Infarction, Embolism, Pulmonary Hypertension
    Respiratory distress in  adults and newborn
    Air lung content alterations (emphysema and atelectasia).

    Chronic obstructive and restrictive pneumopathies: natural history and morphological aspects
    Pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and lung abscess: morphological aspects
    Pneumoconiosis: etiopathogenesis, morphological aspects and natural history.
    Interstitial lung diseases and pulmonary fibrosis: morphological aspects
    Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis: morphological aspects
    Lung tumors: Classification criteria, morphological aspects, isto-prognostic correlations and natural history
    Pleuritis and pleural tumors: Morphological aspects
    Cytological examination: generality and applications in pulmonary pathology
    RENAL AND ENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY
    Endocrine tumors of  pancreas and GI tract: morphological aspects and clinico-pathological correlations
    Hyperplasia and adrenal tumors: classification and clinico-pathological correlations
    Ipo- and hyper-pituitaryism. Tumors of the pituitary gland: classification and clinico-pathological correlations

    Hypo- and hyper-thyroid dysfunction and natural history.
    Thyroiditis: classification, etiopathogenesis, natural history and morphology
    Thyroid tumors: Classification criteria, morphological aspects, natural history and diagnostic assessment techniques.
    Parathyroid hyperplasia and tumors: morphological aspects and anatomic-clinical correlations
    Renal biopsy: diagnostic role
    Nephritic syndrome: primitive and secondary causes
    Nephrotic syndrome: primitive and secondary causes
    Acute renal failure and tubulopathy: morphological aspects
    Renal lesions in lupus erythematosus
    Renal pathology of Diabetes Mellitus.
    Acute and chronic pielonephritis

     

    TOPICS TREATED IN THE IV YEAR, 1st SEMESTER
    DIGESTIVE DISEASE PATHOLOGY

    Precancer and oral cavity cancers
    Salivary gland diseases
    Laryngeal and rhinopharyngeal Tumors
    Endoscopic biopsy in digestive disease diagnosis
    Esophagitis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease
    Preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the esophagus: Classification criteria, morphological aspects and natural history
    Pre-cancerous lesions and gastric cancers: classification criteria, morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations and natural history
    Gastritis and peptic ulcer
    Mechanical and circulatory disorders of the intestine
    Malabsorption: nosography, morphological aspects, role of biopsy
    Enteritis and acute and chronic colitis (infectious and non-infectious)
    Benign and malignant tumors of the intestine: classification criteria, morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history
    Alterations of the liver circulation
    Infectious and non-infectious hepatitis (autoimmune): morphological aspects and natural history
    Pathological basics of nodular lesions of the liver: Classification criteria, morphology, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history
    Genetic liver diseases
    Exogenous toxic liver diseases (drugs and alcohol)
    Liver cirrhosis: morphogenesis, morphological aspetcs and natural history
    Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology of the bile ducts (intra and extraepathic)
    Acute and chronic pancreatitis: morphological aspects and natural history
    Exocrine pancreas tumors: classification criteria and histo-prognostic correlations


    Eye tumors

    Pathological aspects of HIV infection

     

    TOPICS TREATED IN THE IV YEAR, 2nd SEMESTER
    GENERAL TOPICS
    Collaboration between Clinicians and Pathologists in the construction of the diagnosis and definition of prognosis
    The request for  histo-cytologic exams and interpretation of the reports
    Major malformative syndromes (encephalitis, heart and kidney)
    Male infertility causes

    HEMATOPATHOLOGY
    Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas: classification, morphological aspects, prognostic indicators, clinical-pathological correlations.
    Acute and chronic lymphadenitis
    Multiple myeloma and plasmocytoma.
    Mediastinal tumors: classification and clinical-pathological correlations
    PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY OF THE CENTRAL & PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Traumatic injuries.
    Cerebrovascular lesions.
    Infections of the CNS
    Demyelinating diseases
    CNS degenerative diseases
    Tumors of the CNS
    ONCOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY
    Breast cancer: Classification criteria, morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history, role of cytology and screening techniques
    Skeletal tumors: classification and prognostic correlation
    Soft tissue tumors: classification approach
    Kidney tumors in adulthood and childhood: morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history
    Urinary tract tumors: morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history
    Prostate tumors: morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history
    Testicular and epididymal tumors: classification criteria, morphological aspects, histo-prognostic correlations, natural history

    The pathology of female genital tract is treated in the Course of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Gallo D'Amati- Anatomia Patologica – La sistematica. EDRA (2a ediz., 2018)

    Robbins & Cotran- Le basi patologiche delle malattie. EDRA MASSON (9a ediz. Italiana, 2015)

    Ruco e Scarpa- Anatomia Patologica – Le basi. UTET (1 a ediz., 2008)

    All slides shown in lessons are published on Aulaweb

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    ROBERTO FIOCCA (President)

    EZIO FULCHERI (President)

    FEDERICA GRILLO (President)

    LUCA MASTRACCI (President)

    CARLO PESCE (President)

    VALERIO GAETANO VELLONE (President)

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    September 29th 2020, h.12

    Class schedule

    PATOLOGY

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Partial “ongoing” verification of topics covered in 3rd year, 2nd semester at the end of the 3rd year.

    The exam of the course of Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Correlations at the end of 4th year also includes the verification of topics treated in the 4th year - 1st semester.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    ORAL EXAMINATION: Each candidate is offered 4 topics of oncological and non-oncological nature. After the submission of the arguments, the candidate is given a variable time (about 20 ') to arrange his own presentation even by producing written notes. After this first stage, an oral assessment is held with at least two professors.
    The final evaluation also takes into account the outcome of the previously conducted test on the topics covered during the third year - II semester.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    19/10/2021 08:30 GENOVA Orale Modalità online Gli iscritti riceveranno una mail con il codice di accesso a TEAM Si ricorda agli studenti che devono sostenere la "prova in itinere" che devono effettuare l'iscrizione su Aulaweb
    16/11/2021 08:30 GENOVA Orale Modalità online Gli iscritti riceveranno una mail con il codice di accesso a TEAM Si ricorda agli studenti che devono sostenere la "prova in itinere" che devono effettuare l'iscrizione su Aulaweb
    21/12/2021 08:30 GENOVA Orale Modalità online Gli iscritti riceveranno una mail con il codice di accesso a TEAM Si ricorda agli studenti che devono sostenere la "prova in itinere" che devono effettuare l'iscrizione su Aulaweb
    12/01/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    02/02/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    23/02/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    15/03/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    15/03/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale
    12/04/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    17/05/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale
    08/06/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    29/06/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    20/07/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    21/09/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale L'esame di anatomia patologica si svolgerà in presenza presso l'Istituto di Anatomia patologica, Monoblocco anatomico, Via De toni 14, 2° piano - alle ore 8:30
    18/10/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale
    22/11/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale
    21/12/2022 08:30 GENOVA Orale