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EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY

CODE 62662
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
CREDITS 7 credits during the 2nd year of 8746 School of Dental Medicine (LM-46) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR MED/04
LANGUAGE Italian
TEACHING LOCATION GENOVA (School of Dental Medicine)
SEMESTER 2° Semester
PREREQUISITES
Prerequisites
You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
  • School of Dental Medicine 8746 (coorte 2020/2021)
  • BIOCHEMISTRY 62658
  • PHYSIOLOGY 62661
Prerequisites (for future units)
This unit is a prerequisite for:
  • School of Dental Medicine 8746 (coorte 2020/2021)
  • MEDICAL SCIENCE I 67082
  • PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY 67208
  • DENTAL PATHOLOGY 67213
  • MEDICAL IMAGING FOR RADIOTHERAPY 67211
  • PHARMACOLOGY 67210
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

Pathology is the study (logos) of suffering (pathos). It is a bridging discipline connecting basic science and clinical practice, and is devoted to the study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs that underlie disease. Through molecular, microbiological, immunological and morphological studies, General Pathology investigates the different causes of disease and their pathogenic mechanisms to favor the development of effective therapies.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The learning outcome is the knowledge the main responses of tissues to injuries mediated by exogenous or endogenous agents.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The teaching aims to provide students
- the notions necessary to understand causes (endogenous or exogenous) and mechanisms underlying important human pathologies
- a general understanding of how the immune system controls and defends the body's well-being
- the ability to integrate different knowledge leading to patients' evaluation during the clinical practice

At the end of the course, the student will be able to
• Know the causes and mechanisms of cell and tissue damage
• Recognize the characteristics and indicators of an inflammatory process
• Understand the genesis and evolution of common human diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer
• Know the benefits and possible negative effects of the innate and adaptive immune response
• Apply knowledge to guide therapeutic choices

PREREQUISITES

Notions of biology, biochemistry and physiology

TEACHING METHODS

Lectures, with any possible dialectic interaction with students

 

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Environmental factors of disease: physical causes (radiation, temperature extremes and mechanical energy); chemical causes.

Mechanisms of xenobiotic biotransformation.

Cell pathology: adaptation (atrophy/hypertropy, metaplasy, neoplasy) and death (necrosis and apoptosis).

Innate immunity: cells and molecules, local and systemic inflammation, acute and chronic, histological variants of inflammation, tissue damage repair and regeneration.

Adaptive Immunity: generation, education and function of B and T lymphocytes

Type I hypersensitivity

Mention of immune system’s diseases (immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and auto-inflammatory diseases)

Mention of Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and HSC transplants

Mention of Overview of anemia and hemostasis disorders

Atherosclerosis and mention of cardiovascular disease and rheumatic fever

Oncology: benign and malign neoplasms, the abnormal metabolism of cancer cells, metastasis, local and systemic effects, paraneoplastic syndromes. Epidemiology (risk and prognostic factors). Molecular basis of tumor transformation: oncogenes, oncosuppressors and examples of tumors. Epigenetic mechanisms (methylation, miRNA). Cancer stem cells (CSC), Tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor microenvironment.

Immune responses against cancer, Natural killer cells, tumor escape mechanisms, tumor-associated inflammation.

Environmental causes of cancer: physical, chemical and biological carcinogenesis.

Optical microscope evaluation of pathologic tissues (different types of inflammation and cancer).

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Elsevier

Abbas & Lichtman Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Elsevier

The didactic material is available in pdf format for download (Teams or aulaweb)

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Exam Board

CRISTINA BOTTINO (President)

ROBERTA RICCIARELLI (President)

LESSONS

TEACHING METHODS

Lectures, with any possible dialectic interaction with students

 

LESSONS START

2nd semester, 2nd year

Class schedule

All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

The end-of-course exam aims to evaluate the achievement of the educational objectives of the course. The exams take place on the dates indicated in the calendar. Verification is oral, conducted by two teachers for each student. The grade is assigned as a weighted average. The teachers verify the achievement of the educational objectives by asking diversified questions relating to the programs actually carried out during the lesson hours. When the educational objectives have not been achieved, the student is invited to better verify his knowledge and to take the exam again in its entirety. There are no student reception hours, but students can contact the teachers by email in order to make an appointment for further explanations.

Exam Commission

Proff. Cristina Bottino, Roberta Ricciarelli

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Verification of learning takes place only through the final exam which aims to verify the actual acquisition, by the student, of the expected learning outcomes. In order to pass the exam, with a score of not less than 18/30, the student must demonstrate that they know and connect the topics covered during the course

 

The following contribute to the final mark expressed out of thirty:

- Ability to deal with the requested topics in a transversal and critical manner;

- Correctness, clarity, synthesis and fluidity of presentation;

- Mastery of the subject;

- Adoption of appropriate terminology

The mark of 30/30 with possible honors will be awarded when the knowledge / skills of the subject are excellent.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
11/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale Vista la gravità della curva epidemiologica e mancando ad oggi precise indicazioni da parte dei CdL, I docenti hanno deciso all'unanimità di svolgere gli esami solo online MEDICINA: Ora: 9 - codice team 2ii6p2r Lettera estratta: D per i canali delle interrogazioni consultare il file che sarà presente nel team Il file con i voti sarà consultabile nel team. Eventuali rifiuti dovranno essere comunicati per mail a Cristina.Bottino@unige.it entro il 12 dicembre ODONTOIATRIA: Ora: 9:30 - codice team jlmg1pu gli studenti sosterranno l'esame prima con la prof. Ricciarelli, in seguito con la prof. Bottino collegandosi sul canale team di medicina (2ii6p2r) Il file con i voti sarà consultabile nel team. Eventuali rifiuti dovranno essere comunicati per mail a Cristina.Bottino@unige.it entro il 12 Dicembre.
01/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale Gli esami si svolgeranno online MEDICINA: Ora: 9 - codice team 2ii6p2r - appello sul canale generale Lettera estratta: E per i canali delle interrogazioni consultare il file che sarà presente nel team Il file con i voti sarà consultabile nel team. Eventuali rifiuti dovranno essere comunicati per mail a Cristina.Bottino@unige.it entro il 2 Gennaio ODONTOIATRIA: Ora: 9:30 - codice team jlmg1pu gli studenti sosterranno l'esame prima con la prof. Ricciarelli, in seguito con la prof. Bottino collegandosi sul canale team di medicina (2ii6p2r) Il file con i voti sarà consultabile nel team. Eventuali rifiuti dovranno essere comunicati per mail a Cristina.Bottino@unige.it entro il 2 Gennaio.
22/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale Gli esami si svolgeranno online MEDICINA: Ora: 9 - codice team 2ii6p2r Lettera estratta: S per i canali delle interrogazioni consultare il file che sarà presente nel team Il file con i voti sarà consultabile nel team. Eventuali rifiuti dovranno essere comunicati per mail a Cristina.Bottino@unige.it entro il 24 Febbraio ODONTOIATRIA: Ora: 9:30 - codice team jlmg1pu gli studenti sosterranno l'esame prima con la prof. Ricciarelli, in seguito con la prof. Bottino collegandosi sul canale team di medicina (2ii6p2r) Il file con i voti sarà consultabile nel team. Eventuali rifiuti dovranno essere comunicati per mail a Cristina.Bottino@unige.it entro il 23 Febbraio.
07/06/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
28/06/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
19/07/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
06/09/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
20/09/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale

FURTHER INFORMATION

The didactic material is available in pdf format for download (Teams or Aulaweb)