|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||MED/04|
|MODULES||This unit is a module of:|
The aim is to teach the origin and the mechanisms underlying the infections, the inflammatory, metabolic, degenerative and neoplastic processes responsible for human pathology. Students will learn: the concept of disease status and the main causes that lead to cellular and tissue injury; the reaction of the organism in response to cellular and tissue damage; the cellular adaptation processes and inflammation, with the consequent regeneration / healing processes. They will learn the mechanisms underlying tumor development, and the characteristics of neoplastic cells. The stages of the development and progression of tumor and the differences between benign and malignant tumors.
Teaching is divided into 10 hours of classroom lectures on all the topics of the syllabus. The topics are explained by the teacher through PowerPoint presentations. The teacher always recommends the use of a textbook to expand the overall view of the subject. The language is Italian.
Definition of the study field of Pathology. Notion of homeostasis.
Notion of cause and its characteristics. Classification of causes: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic causes of disease - Autosomal recessive and dominant diseases.
Extrinsic causes of illness –
Physical Radiation Definition; classification (corpusculate and electromagnetic). Ionizing and exciting radiation. Ionizing radiation: direct and indirect effects; effects at molecular, cellular, tissue and organ level. Exciting radiation: direct and indirect effects. Temperature: Effects of high and low temperatures at local and systemic level.
Traumas- Main concepts on: traumas of superficial tissues. Trauma of internal organs. Osteoarticular traumas. –
Chemical causes. How chemical substances cause disease. Ph alteration. Solvent action. Denaturing action. Toxic action: definition and concepts of concentration at the active site, dose, distribution volume, time, route of administration. Poison definition. Defense mechanisms against poisons: congenital and acquired defenses.
3) Cellular pathology
Concepts of cell adaptation, cell injury; regressive and progressive processes. Atrophies. Hypertrophies and hyperplasia. Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis.
Acute and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation: Concept of chemical mediator. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Alteration of vascular permeability, hydrostatic and colloid-osmotic pressure. Formation of inflammatory edema. Chemotaxis, migration, margination and diapedesis of leukocytes. Phagocytosis. Systemic inflammation: leukocytosis, fever, acute phase proteins. Septic shock Classification of acute inflammation. Chronic inflammation: cellular characteristics of chronic inflammation.and its pathogenesis. Chronic interstitial and granulomatous inflammations.
Regeneration and repair concepts. Wound healing: first and second intention. Complications.
6) General Oncology
Definition of neoplasia. Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors. Epidemiology of tumors. Molecular bases of cancer: oncogenes, tumor suppressors, genes that regulate apoptosis. Carcinogenesis.
GM. PONTIERI- "Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia generale. Per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie". Ed. Piccin
JAM. MAIER- " Elementi di Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia". Ed. Mc Graw Hill Education
Classes are in the second semester and start in the second half of March. The precise schedule is agreed with the coordinator responsible for the course and communicated on the website.
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The exam is an oral one, that consist in an interview with the teacher.
Verification of learning is carried out through the oral exam, aimed at verifying the real acquisition by the student of the expected learning outcomes. Several items will further contribute to the student evaluation:
-accuracy, clarity, synthesis and fluency;
- competence in the subject;
- speaking ability and correct use of terminology