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CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

CODE 66475
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
CREDITS
  • 9 cfu during the 2nd year of 9288 DIETISTICA(L/SNT3) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/12
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    MODULES This unit is a module of:
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    Clinical biochemistry is the area of clinical pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. 

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Clinical biochemistry studies the meaning of laboratory tests in diagnostics, prognostics, confirmation of the effectiveness of therapy and as a means of screening for certain diseases.  Through this course the student will learn the normal values of the principal laboratory tests that explore the function of organs and tissues, the unit of measurement in which they are expressed and the main diseases that cause their alteration. At the end of the course the student will be able to use the information received to interpret for diagnostic purposes the deviation from the average of the values of the main laboratory tests and will be able to evaluate the information that these tests may reveal regarding diseases of specific organs or functions, in particular in pathological conditions related to nutrition.

     

     

    TEACHING METHODS

    Plenary Lectures (online or in presence, depending on covid-related guidelines by the University) covering the entire program of the course.

    During the lessons, the "normal" range of the common clinical chemistry values will be provided, the clinical significance of alterations of organ- or tissue-specific parameters will be discussed and simple clinical cases will be presented, allowing the students to put into practice this information in a diagnostic reasoning.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    1-Blood. Generalities on laboratory tests. The clinical-chemistry profile: blood count, electrophoretic profile, serum iron, serum enzymes, serum nitrogen compounds, coagulation tests, critical values.

    2- Endocrinology. Methods of hormones assay. Thyroid function tests. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Generalities on other hormones and tests that explore the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

    3- Metabolism. Diabetes mellitus: criteria for the diagnosis of prediabetes, T1D, T2D and gestational diabetes. Dyslipidemias: lipidogram, cardiovascular risk stratification criteria, desirable lipidemic values.

    4- Inflammation. Serum markers of inflammation, chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The microbiota. Diagnostic strategies in infections.

    5- Renal function tests. Notes on renal control of hydro-electrolytic balance and function of the various parts of the nephron. The chemical-physical examination of the urine. The microscopic examination of the urine sediment. Glomerular and tubular function tests.

    6- Hepatic function tests. Serum enzymes and other indicators of hepatocellular function. Lab diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Differential diagnosis of jaundice. Laboratory diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

    7- Pancreas and digestive pathologies. Pancreatic function tests. Lab tests in gastro-intestinal diseases (breath test, fecal blood test, celiac disease, Crohn's disease). Lab tests in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Nutritional markers.

    8- Cardiovascular. Lab markers of myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular risk markers. Notes on guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    9- The human microbiota. Generalities, functions, mechanisms through which dysbiosis can cause disease. Methods of studying the microbiota.

    10- Haemogasanalysis. Normal values. Hyper- and hypocapnia; hypoxemia; acid-base balance in the blood: buffer systems, respiratory and renal control. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis; definition and hints on compensation mechanisms.

     

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    educational material provided by the teacher and available online (aulaweb)

     

     

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    CONSUELO BORGARELLI (President)

    FEDERICA BARBIERI

    SUSANNA PENCO

    LAURA STURLA

    ELENA ZOCCHI

    ILARIA DEMORI (President and Coordinator of Integrated Course)

    LESSONS

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    The clinical biochemistry part of this integrated course will be tested with a written, multiple choice test, performed either in the classroom or on a digital platform, in agreement with dispositions regarding the SARS-CoV2 emergency.

     The result of the test will be part of the final score, calculated on the basis of the respective CFU of each part of the integrated course.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    The exam will verify the achievement of the educational goals; in particular, it will ascertain the student's knowledge of the clinical meaning of the biochemical-clinical parameters presented during the lessons, of the unit of measure in which they are expressed and of their dynamic range in the main pathologies for which they represent a diagnostic-prognostic tool. The ability to choose, among some proposed tests, those suitable to solve a specific diagnostic question, and the ability to identify deviations from the norm indicative of pathology, will be evaluated.

    Please refer to the AulaWeb instance specific to the teaching for possible updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    24/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    09/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    25/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    15/06/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    05/07/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    20/07/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    16/09/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale