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MISURE INDUSTRIALI

CODICE 60157
ANNO ACCADEMICO 2022/2023
CFU
  • 9 cfu al 2° anno di 8731 INGEGNERIA ELETTRICA (LM-28) - GENOVA
  • SETTORE SCIENTIFICO DISCIPLINARE ING-INF/07
    LINGUA Italiano (Inglese a richiesta)
    SEDE
  • GENOVA
  • PERIODO Annuale
    MATERIALE DIDATTICO AULAWEB

    PRESENTAZIONE

    Inquadramento della strumentazione per le misure dei parametri elettrici e fisici necessari per la supervisione ed il controllo dei processi industriali nell’ambito più vasto della Automazione Industriale. Introduzione dei concetti essenziali di comunicazione digitale e di fieldbus per applicazioni industriali (con approfondimento su protocolli Profinet e IEC 61850). Il concetto di Intelligent Field Device e di automazione distribuita. Cenni su Industria 4.0.

    OBIETTIVI E CONTENUTI

    OBIETTIVI FORMATIVI

    Le misure nel contesto dell'automazione industriale. Misure elettriche e di processo. Strumentazione e attuatori. Architettura dei sistemi di acquisizione dati e di automazione. Programmazione di PLC. Comunicazione industriale: fieldbus. Norme di riferimento. Sicurezza funzionale. Aree con pericolo di esplosione.

    MODALITA' DIDATTICHE

    - lezioni frontali

    - esercitazioni e prove pratiche

    - visite a impianti

    PROGRAMMA/CONTENUTO

    Instrumentation for the Industrial Automation

             1        Conceptual model of the Industrial Automation

                       .a) measurement and control -> accuracy and repetibility

                       .b) process – instrumentation – control – actuators

                            .c) the role of Computer Engineer

             2        Goal of the automation in different areas

                       .a) Continuous Process -> regolation -> DCS

                            .b) Factory Automation -> sequences -> PLC

                            .c) Service Networks -> supervision -> SCADA

                            .d) Building Automation -> supervision -> SCADA

             4        Conceptual model of a Transmitter

                       .a) sensor -> processing -> signal 

                            .b) microprocessor-based instruments

                            .c) axiliary power supply (summary)

                5        Actuators

                       .a) on-off electric: relays and motor starters

                            .b) on-off pneumatic: electro-valve

                            .c) continuous electric: drives

                            .d) continuous pneumatic: actuators and positioners for valves

             6        Standard signals (analog and digital)

                       .a) on/off signal (SPDT)

                       .b) current/voltage signals

                            .c) signals with live-zero

                            .d) instruments with 2/4-wires

             7        The concept of Fieldbus

                       .a) A/D conversions

                            .b) network of devices in field: the fieldbus

                            .c) reduction of cabling

                            .d) the need of a standard

     

    2      The Project of an Automation System

             1        Data-flow and People

                       .a) process expert and automation expert

                            .b) functional specifications

             2        P&ID

                       .a) ISA symbols for instrumentation

                            .b) Process & Instrumentation Diagram

             3        The I/O List

                       .a) goal of the I/O list            

                            .b) typical I/O list

     

     

    3      Electrical measures in industrial environment

             1        One-Line diagram

                       .a) which variable to measure

                            .b) measuring the Power Quality

             2        PTs and CTs

                       .a) CT for masures and protection

                            .b) the limit factor for CTs

                            .c) PTs for measures and protection

                                   .d) fiscal measuring (the MID Directive)

             3        Multi-functions transducers

                       .a) block diagram of a digital instrument

                            .b) typical accuracy

                            .c) output signals and interfaces

     

    4      Measurement of Temperature

             1        Generalità

                       .a) measuring units

                            .b) thermometers: operating principles

                            .c) thermostats: operating principles

             2        Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

                         .a) operating principles

                            .b) standards and accuracy

                            .c) problems with installation

             3        Thermocouples (TC)

                         .a) operating principles

                            .b) standards and accuracy

                            .c) problems with installation

     

             4        Other sensors

                       .a) thermistors

                            .b) pirometers

                            .c) innovative sensors (optic, acustic, ...)

             5        Installation of the Instruments

                       .a) construction shapes

                            .b) thermo-wells

     

    5      Measurement of Pressure

             1        Generalità

                            .a) measuring units

                            .b) absolute-relative-differential pressure

                            .c) manometers: operating principles

                            .d) pressure switches: operating principles

             2        Sensors for pressure

                       .a) strain gauge

                            .b) piezo-electric

                            .c) capacitive

                            .d) other sensors: resonant, optic, ...

             3        Installation of the Instruments

                       .a) root valves and piping

                            .b) manifolds

     

    6      Measurement of Flow

             1        General

                       .a) flow measurement for solids and fluids

                            .b) flowmeters: operating principles

                            .c) flow-switches: operating principles

             2        Volumetric systems

                       .a) gears

                            .b) turbines

                            .c) target type

                            .d) Rangeability and reliability

             3        Restricted area devices    

                       .a) the Law of Bernoulli

                            .b) pressure profile

                            .c) primary elements: flanges, nozzles, venturi-pipes, pitot-pipes

                            .d) installation problems

             4        Magnetic flowmeters

                       .a) the Faraday Law

                            .b) structure of a mag flowmeter

                            .c) accuracy and rangeability

                            .d) sizing and installation

                5        Vortex transmitter

                       .a) The vortexes of Von Karman

                            .b) structure of a vortex flowmeter

                            .c) accuracy and rangeability

                            .d) sizing and installation

     

             6        Mass flowmeter

                       .a) the concept of mass-flow

                            .b) The law of Coriolis

                            .c) accuracy and rangeability

                            .d) sizing and installation

                           

             7        Other sensors for flow-metering

                       .a) ultrasonic

                            .b) thermal mass

     

    7      Measurement of Level

             1        General

                       .a) levels of bulk material and liquids

                            .b) gauge and switch

             2        Electro-mechanical systems

                       .a) glass indicators

                            .b) measuring rods and ropes

                            .c) flow sensors

                            .d) rotating blades

                            .e) vibration sensors

                            .f) jo-jo sensors

                            .g) torque bar

                            .h) conductive sensors

             3        Hydrostatic pressure transmitters

                       .a) physical priciple

                            .b) pressurized and atmospheric tanks

                            .c) installation criteria

                            .d) submerged probe

             4        Capacitive transmitters

                       .a) physical priciple

                            .b) shapes and materials

                            .c) installation criteria

             5        Fly-time measuring systems

                       .a) ultrasonic transmitters

                            .b) micro-waves transmitters

                            .c) areas of application

                            .d) installation criteria

             6        Radioactive transmitters (summary)

                       .a) physical principle

                            .b) typical applications

     

    8      Fieldbus for Process Control

             1        Intelligent Field Device

                       .a) the concept of IFD

                            .b) advanced functions of IFD

                            .c) Smart instruments (Hart protocol)

             2        The concept of Communication Protocol

                       .a) the ISO/OSI model

                            .b) physical layer

                            .c) data link: data structure

                            .d) data link: Media Access Control

                            .e) transportation and networking (TCP/IP)

                            .f) application layer

                            .g) the companion standards (profiles)

             3        Internation standards for fieldbus

                       .a) from the beginnings to the IEC 61158

                            .b) standards for fieldbus todays

                            .c) Ethernet-based protocols

             4        Basic priciples of Profibus

                       .a) Profibus DP: principles and applications

                            .b) Profibus PA: principles and applications

                            .c) Specific profiles: ProfiSafe, ProfiDrive, ProfiEnergy

                            .d) Profinet

             5        Basic principles of Foundation Fieldbus

                       .a) level H1 and HSE

                            .b) Link Active Scheduler

                            .c) FF and distributed programming

             7        Wireless Sensor Networks

                       .a) industrial applications for wireless

                            .b) IEEE 802.11: WiFi

                            .c) IEEE 802.15: Bluetooth

                            .d) IEEE 802.15.4: ZigBee

                            .e) hybrid architectures (gateway)

     

     

    9      Automation Systems and Architectures

             1        The levels of automation

                       .a) multi-levels architectures: from the field to the control room

                            .b) distributed vs. concentrated architettures

                            .c) ERP and MES (summary)

                            .d) Internet: problems of security

             2        Operating principles of PLC/DCS/SCADA

                       .a) HW components: CPU, I/O cards, Power Supply, ...

                            .b) functional cyucles

             3        IEC 61131-3 programming languages   

                       .a) origin and use of the IEC 61131-3

                       .b) ladder diagram

                            .c) instruction list

                            .d) structured text

                            .e) function block language

                            .f) Sequencial Function Chart

                            .g) PC-based architectures

             4        OLE for Process Control

                       .a) interface between applications and controllers

                            .b) the benefits of OPC

                            .c) future deveolpment (OPC-UA)

     

             5        Hazardous Areas classification (ATEX)

                       .a) flammable materials and explosions

                            .b) The ATEX Directive

                            .c) classification for gas and dust

                            .d) safety electrical plants

             6        Functional Safety (SIL)

                       .a) The concept of functional safety

                            .b) The IEC 60508

                            .c) SIL and automation architectures

     

    10     Automation of electrical systems

             1        Automation functions for distribution systems HV/MV/LV

                       .a) supervision and remote control

                            .b) switch-over and emergency logics

                            .c) conventional architectures

             2        Intelligent Electrical Device

                       .a) digital protective relays

                            .b) advanced functions of digital relays

             3        A primer about IEC 61850

                       .a) origins of the IEC 61850

                            .b) the concept of logical node

                            .c) GOMSFE and GSE

                            .d) distributed automation with IEC 61850

    TESTI/BIBLIOGRAFIA

    Riferimenti bibliografici:

    [1]     A. Brunelli : “Strumentazione di misura e controllo nelle applicazioni industriali” Ed. GISI, 2002, ISBN 88-903-7314-8

    [2]     L.A. Bryan, E.A. Bryan: “Programmable Controllers – Theory and Implementation”, ISBN 0-944107-32-X

    [3]     N.P.Mahalik (a cura di), “Fieldbus Technology – Industrial Network Standards for Real-Time Distributed Control”, ISBN 3-540-40183-0

    [4]     F.Cascetta (a cura di), “Strumentazione di misura per sistemi di telecontrollo di reti idriche di pubblica utilità”, ISBN 88-464-1565-5

    [5]     P.Pinceti, “SCADA per sistemi elettrici”, ISBN 88-464-4991-6

    [6]     P.Pinceti, “L’impianto di distribuzione in Media Tensione”, ISBN 978-88-904026-0-9

    [7]     ASEM, “Personal Automation – L’automazione industriale basata su PC”, ISBN 88-481-1475-X

    [8]     J.Berge, “Fieldbuses for Process Control”, ISBN 1556177607

     

     

    Siti Web utili:

    [1]     www.isa.org

    [2]     www.iec.ch

    [3]     www.ieee.org

    [4]     www.gisi.it

    [5]     www.anie.it

    [6]     www.assoautomazione.it

    [7]     www.control.com

    [8]     www.opcfoundation.org

    [9]     www.profibus.com

    [10]    www.fieldbus.org

     

    Riviste del settore:

    [1]     Automazione e Strumentazione

    [2]      Fieldbus e Network

    [3]      InTech

    [4]      Control Engineering

    [5]      IEEE Instrumentation & Measurements

    [6]      Eidos

    [7]      Automazione Oggi    

    [8]      Tutto Misure

     

     

    DOCENTI E COMMISSIONI

    LEZIONI

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