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Technical Directions.


To format your dissertation remember that:

  • texts must be written using Times New Roman font
  • .
  • the font body should be 12 point (notes go in body 10)
  • .
  • the size of the left-right and top-bottom margins must be 2.5 cm
  • the line spacing must be 2 points (1.5 cm)
  • printing must be double-sided
  • the overall length of the text must be a minimum of 100,000 and a maximum of 300,000 characters, including spaces


There are many methods of citation and you will have to agree with your lecturer on which method to follow. Just remember to use the same method for the entire bibliography.

  • Surname and Name of author(s) (in full; if there are two or three authors, the names should be separated by a comma)
  • Surname and Name of the curator(s) followed by "(edited by)." In case of more than two editors, the first one may be cited followed by the formula et al.

Surname First Name, (YEAR) Title and Subtitle of the work, City: Publishing House.


  • Dummett Michael (2006) Thought and Reality, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Segre Cesare and Ossola Carlo (eds.) 2001 Anthology of Italian Poetry.
    . Vol. V: Seicento, Turin: Einaudi

Surname Name, (YEAR), "Title and Subtitle" in Name of Journal, volume number, issue: pages

. Karlsson Mikael (1995) "Defeating the Inference from General to Particular Norms" in Ratio Juris 8/3: 271-286

Surname First Name, (YEAR) "Title and Subtitle" in Name and Surname of Curator/1 Volume title: pp. [contribution pages], city, edition.

. Kuhlmann, Meinard (2011) "Mechanisms in Dynamically Complex Systems," in P. McKay Illari, F. Russo, & J. Williamson (Eds.), Causality in the Sciences, Oxford: Oxford University Press

A useful way to help easily find the text cited in the bibliography is to cite it in a footnote or in the body of the paper.

For example:

  • See Karsson (1995)
  • .
  • Karslsson (1995) argues that...
  • .
  • As Karlsson (1995: 24-5)
  • argues.

  • Anon. Anonymous
  • art.article (for articles of Law)
  • .
  • cap.chapter (plural: chap.)
  •, see also, refer to
  • previously cited (if of the author(s) other works are cited)
  • edition edition
  • fig. figure (plural: figg)
  • infra. see below
  • supra see above
  • .
  • loc. cit. place cited
  • MS manuscript (plural: MSS)
  • N.B.note well
  • series
  • .
  • n. number (plural: nn.)
  • op. cit. previously cited work
  • passim here and there (when not referring to a specific place in the text)
  • p. page (plural: pp.)
  • par. paragraph (plural: parr.); also: §
  • r recto
  • s.d. undated (of edition)
  • .
  • s.l. without place (of edition)
  • following sec.
  • .
  • seg. section
  • sic so (written so by the very author being quoted)
  • NdA author's note [usually in square brackets]
  • NdT translator's note [usually in square brackets]
  • NdC editor's note [usually in square brackets]
  • NdR editor's note
  • .
  • tab. table
  • .
  • tav.table
  • trad.translation (also: tr.)
  • v verse
  • .
  • vol.volume (plural: vol.)

The quotes are spelled:

  • in a smaller body (10 pt)
  • .
  • with an indentation from the normal margins of the text
  • in single line spacing

[...] ellipsis reporting
should be used to define an omission or cut


"..." double high quotes
should be used to signal:

  • the use of direct speech
  • a quotation within the text

'...' single high quotes
should be used in place of double quotation marks when in text that is already enclosed in double quotation marks

[ ] square brackets
are to be used to signal within non-original (i.e. quoted) text any intrusion by you

should be used when foreign (as opposed to Italian) or Latin/Greek terms appear in the text.

Web Sources.

The thesis may contain a synography.


In the thesis, citations from the web may be of various kinds:

Electronic presentation

If you want to use an electronic presentation during the discussion, you can test it 30 minutes before the start of the graduation session by making arrangements with the technical support of the Chair.

To schedule an appointment call the Technical Office at 010 209 51485 on Tuesdays or Thursdays from 2 to 3 p.m.

Photographic/audiovisual filming

Read the Regulation of the accreditation procedure for conducting photographic and/or audiovisual filming activities within university buildings.