|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/10|
You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
Prerequisites (for future units)
This unit is a prerequisite for:
The course takes into consideration the general principles of Biological Chemistry with particular reference to aspects related to cellular metabolism
Provide students with a broad general understanding of the principles of biochemistry and molecular biology. At the same time the course offers examples of biochemical and technological applications in various fields.
Acquisition of basic knowledge on the structure and function of proteins with particular attention to those with enzymatic activity. Use of this knowledge for learning, at the molecular level, of the biochemistry of the main catabolic and anabolic processes. Participation in the training activity (lectures) will allow the student to acquire the knowledge necessary to understand the mechanisms related to cellular metabolism.
In order to effectively address the contents of the course, the following basic knowledge is required: 1) general structures of biomolecules 2) general principles of organic chemistry
The lessons take place in the first semester through lectures that make use of slide projections.
• INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Compartmentalization and cellular transport.
Enzymes and their properties. Enzymatic kinetics. Enzymatic inhibition.
• AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS
General properties of a standard amino acid. Peptide bond and its geometric isomerism. Definition of polypeptide and protein. Protein structures. Structure of the heme group. Carbon monoxide and oxygen binding properties of myoglobin and hemoglobin and their structure. Role of pH and 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate.
• COENZYMES AND VITAMINS
Vitamins and Coenzymes. Pyridine coenzymes NAD and NADP: oxide / reductive inter-conversions with hydride ion transfer mechanism.
General concepts (anabolism and catabolism) Energy molecules (ATP and reduced coenzymes). Energy production strategies.
• GLUCOSE AND GLYCOLYSIS
Glucose transport. Transporters (GLUT). Scheme of glycolysis and enzymes involved. Exokinase and glucokinase.PFK1.Pyruvate kinase. Glycolysis regulation. Anareobic glycolysis. Alcoholic fermentation.
Gluconeogenesis substrates. Gluconeogenesis scheme. Adjustment
Structure of glycogen. Muscle and hepatic glycogen. Synthesis and demolition. Hormonal regulation (insulin and glucagon). Protein kinase and phosphatase.
• VIA PENTOSE PHOSPHATE
Oxidative and non-oxidative phase. NADPH. Glutathione. Glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Control of the pentose pathway. Decarboxylating malate dehydrogenase (malic enzyme)
• KREBS CYCLE
Pyruvate oxidative decarboxylation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its regulation. Krebs cycle and its regulation. Energy Performance. Anaplerotic reactions.
Structure of triglycerides and fatty acids. Digestion and absorption. Lipase and its activation. Carnitine. Oxidation of saturated fatty acids, with odd carbon numbers and mono unsaturated. Energy balance. Adjustment. Chetonic bodies. Saturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Adjustment. Lipoproteins.
• OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORILATION
Mitochondria. Reducing equivalents and their production. Respiratory chain. Respiratory complexes. Coenzyme Q and cytochromes. Redox potentials. Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory. ATP-asi and ATP production. Oxidative phosphorylation yield. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Shuttle systems for the transport of NADH cytosol / mitochondria. (glycerophosphate, malate-aspartate). Translocation
• NITROGEN METABOLISM
Amino acids and their degradation. Digestive enzymes. Transamination reactions. Transaminase mechanism of action. Deammination of glutamate. Glutamine and glutamine synthetase. Muscle-liver alanine cycle (alanine-glucose). Urea cycle. Interaction of urea and Krebs cycles.
• ENERGY METABOLISM: INTEGRATION AND REGULATION
Metabolic specialization of the organs. Hormones and hormonal regulation.
Principi di Biochimica - Garrett, Grisham - Editore: Piccin
I principi di biochimica di Lehninger - Nelson, Cox - Editore: Zanichelli
Biochimica - Stryer, Timoczcko, Berg - Editore: Zanichelli
Biochimica - Campbell, Farrell - Editore: EdiSES
Fondamenti di Biochimica - Voet, Voet, Pratt - Editore: Zanichelli
Fondamenti di Biochimica- L Pollegioni- Editore EDISES
AulaWeb materials and slides
Office hours: By appointment by email: Enrico.Millo@unige.it
ENRICO MILLO (President)
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The exam consists of an oral test and is conducted by the professor in charge of the course.The oral examination consists of the answer to questions asked by the teacher on topics covered during the course.
Assessment of knowledge of: protein structure, enzymology, proteins that bind and transport oxygen, glucose, lipid and protein metabolism, structural formulas of the molecules involved in catabolic and anabolic processes.
This assessment will be verified by means of questions aimed at assessing whether the student has understood the topics of the course. Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of detail required for each topic will be provided at the beginning of the course and reiterated during lectures .The student must be able to integrate the knowledge acquired during the lectures The oral examination will focus mainly on the topics covered during the lectures and will have the purpose of assessing the achievement of the appropriate level of knowledge, the ability to use the theoretical notions. The ability to expose the arguments clearly and with correct terminology will also be evaluated.
Regular attendance at lectures is strongly recommended