|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
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The course of General Pharmacology is intended to provide students with the basic knowledge of the drug and, in particular, of the interactions that occurs between chemicals and the living organism and that determine the therapeutic effects but also toxicological events.
AIMS AND CONTENT
Learning outcomes will be a basic knowledge about: i) drug pharmacokinetic: absorption and distribution of drug in the body; drug metabolism; excretion); ii) general pharmacodynamics: targets and mechanism of drug action; dose-response curve; agonists and antagonists; biochemical and physiological drug effects and their molecular mechanism; iii) individual variations and side-effects.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
The Module of Pharmacology aims to provide the basic knowledge of pharmacology to explain the mechanisms of drug action underlying clinical applications but also the basic notions of modern toxicology. At the end of the course the students must know the pharmacokinetic properties (time-action) of the drugs, including the kinetic of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, demonstrating that they have understood the pharmacodynamic principles of the action of drugs, including receptors, dose curves - response, biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and their molecular mechanisms. The students will also have to demonstrate knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects, the adverse effects for the classes of drugs that have been treated in class.
The used teaching method involves frontal lectures with in-depth information on the program, and therefore it is advisable to attend the lessons. The flipped classroom would be used too, which aims to increase student engagement and learning of specific topics.
These activities would be carried out in pairs, in groups or alone and would require the creation of a final presentation to the class and feedback from the lecturer.
Essential lexicon in Pharmacology: active substances (drugs; medicinal preparations; medicinal herbs; placebo), drug classes.
Pharmacological Disciplines: general and cellular pharmacology; pharmacognosy; clinical pharmacology; pharmacoeconomics; pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics; pharmacovigilance; chemotherapy; toxicology.
Drug discovery and development. Generic and orphan drugs.
Mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect: target and action of the drug not mediated by receptors, affinity and potency, receptor occupancy and competition, agonist and antagonist, allosteric modulator, partial agonist, inverse agonist
Receptors and modulation of their response. Receptor classification, pathway and signalling transduction: intracellular/nuclear receptors; membrane receptors (ionotropic and G-protein coupled receptors); receptor trafficking; receptor responses (desensitization and sensitization); drug modulation of receptor responses.
Ionotropic receptors. Tissue and subcellular distribution; molecular organization; classification (glutamatergic ionotropic receptors and GABAA); localization of binding site; channel structure; modulation of the ionotropic receptor; drug and their mechanisms of action.
G-protein coupled receptors. Molecular organization and mechanism of action; signal transduction pathways involving the G protein-coupled receptors (the cAMP signal pathway and the phosphatidylinositol signal pathway).
Basic Pharmacodynamics: quantification of drug-receptor interactions and responses; Affinity, Potency and Efficacy; Drug-receptor binding site equilibrium.
Basic Pharmacokinetics: Absorption and routes of drug administration: rate of absorption; partition-coefficient; drug dissolution; extension, permeability and vascularization of absorption surface; enteral routes (oral, sublingual, rectal); parenteral systemic routes (intravascular, intramuscular; cutaneous); other routes (inhalation, transdermal, transmucosal, intracavity). Absorption kinetics. Drug delivery.
Drug distribution and elimination: the apparent distribution volume; drug binding to plasma proteins; free and bound drug concentration; relevant parameters in drug distribution. Elimination and the concept of half-life; renal excretion and clearance; hepatic excretion and enterohepatic cycle.
Drug metabolism: enzymatic systems and phase I and II modifications (cytochrome P450; oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis; methylation; sulphation; acetylation; glucuronidation; conjugation with amino acids or glutathione).
Individual variation in the drug response. Tolerance. Side-effects. Idiosyncratic and allergic reactions. Drug dependency.
General Anesthetics; Agents for control of gastric Acidity and treatment of peptic ulcers. Biotechnological drugs.
Principles of Toxicology. Cellular toxicity pathways. Free radicals. teratogenesis and foetal toxicity. Glutamatergic Excitotoxicity and Hypoxia in the central nervous system.
Golan DE e altri - Principi di Farmacologia – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Rang HP, Dale MM, RitterJM, Flower RJ - Farmacologia - Ed. Elsevier Masson
Howland RD, Mycek MJ – Le basi della farmacologia – Ed Zanichelli
Notes of Lessons
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
LAURA VERGANI (President)
CHIARA CERVETTO (President Substitute)
ADRIANA VOCI (Substitute)
Consult detailed timetable at the following link: https://chimica.unige.it/didattica/orari_CTC
L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.
The evaluation of the student relative to Pharmacology can only take place at the same time as the one relating to the General Physiology. Only in case of positive results for both evaluations the examination will be passed.
The examination will be an oral exam (30 minutes per module, always in presence of the Commission consisting of at least of two lecturers (or sometimes in presence of a lecturer and an expert subject designated by the CCS).
The Commission will verify the achievement of educational objectives with high accuracy collecting information about the nature and extent of learning outcomes, capacity as well as connection and reasoning within topics of the module. When the educational objectives will be not achieved, the Student will be invited to verify better the knowledge and possibly to use supplemental explanations contacting the lecturer.