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CODE 75386
SEMESTER 2° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:


The course is intended to promote the knowledge of both historical facts and theories which inspired projects leading to the early attempts at unifying Europe.



At the end of the course the student is able to: - know the historical processes that led to the first attempts at European unification, the theoretical principles underlying them, the initiatives of movements, parties, political, economic and social forces in favor of continental unity from the second post-war period to the present day; - be aware of the historical dimension of the reality of the European Union and its possible evolutions; - understand the historiography and sources of European integration; - develop in-depth papers on specific topics


At the end of the lectures the student:

* reaches an in-depth historical notions about the history of European integration from 1945 to present;

* knows notes on the history of the idea of Europe;

* has a direct knowledge of documentary and oral sources on the history of European integration;

* gains the knowledge of different historiographic trends on the subject;

* reaches the ability to apply a methodology that allows the student to prepare and present specific papers, based on an individual search on historical sources;

* possesses appropriate tools to analyze and understand the complexity of the European Union, between national efforts and supranational integration, that can be practically used to prepare dossiers with innovative proposals on topical issues.


The lessons are frontal and attendance is strongly suggested. Taking part to at least 70% of the lectures will give the status of “attending student”.

Students could be involved in the simulation of a meeting of an EU institution or a European supranational body.

During the course, thematic seminars on topical issues of the European integration process will be organized and recommended.


Roots of Europe. A moving Europe

The idea of Europe in the history

The turning point of the end of 18th century

Characters and major figures of nineteenth-century Europeanism

The First World War and the Society of Nations. Einaudi’s criticism at the League of Nations

Projects, movements, ideas of European unification in Europe between the two wars

The Briand Plan

The Franco-British Union Monnet project

Europe’s idea and European constitution projects in the Second World War and in the post-war period

The movements for the European unity

Europe at the start of the Cold War

Strategies for European unification

Jean Monnet and Altiero Spinelli

The American attitude towards European unification: from the period between the two wars to the Marshall Plan


The Brussels Pact

The Hague Congress

The Council of Europe

The Schuman Plan



The founding fathers of Europe: Alcide De Gasperi, Konrad Adenauer, Robert Schuman, Paul-Henri Spaak

Article 38 of the EDC and the draft European Community Policy

The Ad Hoc Assembly

From the fall of the EDC to the WEU

The Treaties of Rome

The common agricultural policy

Italy in the EEC and its entry into EMS: 1958-1978

De Gaulle’s European policy. The Fouchet Plans and the empty chair crisis

Kennedy’s proposal of equal partnership of July 1962

Europe in the late 1960s and early 1970s and the international context

The enlargements of the EEC / EU

The crisis of the Bretton Woods system

The Hague Conference and the re-launch of the integration process: completion, enlargement, deepening

The first monetary unification projects. The Werner Plan

The Monetary Snake


From direct EP elections to the Spinelli project

The European Single Act

The Treaty of Maastricht and the constitutional last twenty years

Italy's entry into monetary union

The Treaty of Nice

The Laeken Declaration and the Constitutional Treaty

The Treaty of Lisbon

The Euroscepticism


Recommended texts:

- U. MORELLI, Storia dell’integrazione europea, Milano, Guerini, 2011

- D. PREDA, Alcide De Gasperi: European Founding Father, Brussels, Peter Lang, 2017


- Corrado Malandrino, Stefano Quirico, L’idea di Europa. Storie e prospettive, Carocci, 2020

Non-attending students must also report on one of the following volumes:

  • Matteo Antonio Napolitano, Verso l’Europa unita. Il percorso politico-istituzionale di Giulio Bergmann, Roma, Aracne, 2020.

    Francesco Bonini, Sandro Guerrieri (a cura di), Le Costituzioni degli altri. La Carta italiana in un quadro globale

    Lara Piccardo, Dalla Patria all’Umanità. L’Europa di Giuseppe Mazzini, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2020

    Giorgio Grimaldi, I Verdi italiani e l’Europa. Il Sole che ride dagli albori all’azione nel Parlamento europeo (1978-2009), Bologna, Il Mulino, 2020

    Giorgio Grimaldi, I Verdi in Germania. L’ecologia in politica dai movimenti all’Europa, Pavia, Collana del Jean Monnet Interregional Centre of Excellence, 2020

    Raffaella Cinquanta, Partigiani di tutta Europa, unitevi!”. L’ideale dell’Europa unita nelle riviste clandestine della Resistenza italiana, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2020

    Euroscepticisms. Resistance and Opposition to the European Community/European Union, a cura di Guido Levi e Daniela Preda, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2018

    Daniela Preda, Alcide De Gasperi: European Founding Father, Brussels, Peter Lang, 2017

    Guido Levi, L’europeismo ai tempi della Costituente, Padova, Cedam, 2020

Erasmus students will have to submit a detailed report on a theme of their choice and report on one of the following volumes:

U. MORELLI, L’Unione europea. Storia, istituzioni, politiche, Loescher 2007

S. PISTONE, L'integrazione europea. Uno schizzo storico, UTET, 1999.

W. LOTH, Building Europe, a history of European integration, Berlin, de Gruyter, 2015

M. T. BITSCH, Histoire de la construction européenne, Ed. Complexe, 1999.


Exam Board



MARIA ELEONORA GUASCONI (President Substitute)

LUCA BARBAINI (Substitute)



II semester, February/March 2023.

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy



The exam aims to ascertain the adequate knowledge of the topics covered by the course and its duration varies, modulating with respect to individual cases, in order to allow such verification. The exam is oral and includes questions on both the institutional and the monographic part. Students attending the course will prepare dossiers and present oral reports, which will be included in the overall evaluation. Non-attending students will have to deepen a theme chosen by reading a volume among those published on this syllabus and on aulaweb.


The Commission is designated by the Department Council and chaired by the course professor. The evaluation is based mainly on the knowledge of the subject, but also on the quality of the exposure, the correct use of the specialized lexicon and the critical reasoning ability on the study carried out.

Exam schedule

Data Ora Luogo Degree type Note
10/01/2023 12:00 GENOVA Orale
10/01/2023 12:00 GENOVA Orale Prof.ssa Piccardo
24/01/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
24/01/2023 12:00 GENOVA Orale Prof.ssa Piccardo
23/05/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
23/05/2023 12:00 GENOVA Orale Prof.ssa Piccardo
13/06/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
13/06/2023 12:00 GENOVA Orale Prof.ssa Piccardo
11/07/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
11/07/2023 12:00 GENOVA Orale Prof.ssa Piccardo
05/09/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale


Students with “Special Needs”: the compensatory/dispensative tools recognized by the Department coordinator, Prof. Aristide Canepa, and by the University Service for students with special needs are applied. It is suggested to contact by Prof. Canepa and the lecturer of this course at the beginning of the lectures.