|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/09|
Prerequisites (for future units)
The class aims at the acquisition of the understanding and knowledge of the physical, chemical, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the vital functions of living organisms, with specific reference to the human species and with references to an evolutionary perspective.
The class is structured from the analysis of general principles at the molecular and cellular levels, to subsequently consider the interactions between cells in the organs of different systems in the performance of complex physiological functions.
Understanding of the general principles and common mechanisms regulating cellular functions: intercellular communication; nerve impulse propagation, synaptic transmission, sensory receptors, muscle contraction.
Understanding of the mechanisms underlying the function of the major organs and systems with reference to human relational and vegetative life: blood circulation, respiration, excretion-osmoregulation, nutrition-bioenergetics; endocrinology; reproduction.
Attendance, participation in the activities̀ offered in the classroom and individual study will aim at:
- the comprehension of the common chemical and physical mechanisms regulating cellular functions;
- the comprehension of the general principles underlying the functions of the organism;
- the acquisition of the ability to apply the learned concepts;
- the acquisition of the specific language of the discipline;
- the acquisition of synthesis ability of disciplinary contents.
Basic elements of Mathematics, Physics and General Chemistry.
Elements of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, relevant for biological topics.
Sufficient competence in Cell Biology and Histology for the study of the functions of cells, their molecules and of organs.
Elements of Anatomy.
The class includes lectures, discussions of theoretical exercises, and supplementary support materials.
General Principles - Definition of Physiology. - Features of living beings. - Chemical composition of living matter. - Homeostasis and adaptation.
- Cell membrane. Diffusion, osmosis. Membrane transport. - Cellular communication. Signal molecules, receptors. Pathways of signal transduction. - Equilibrium and diffusion potentials. Donnan equilibrium, pump and leak model, RVD, RVI. - Membrane currents and EF measurements. Action potential. - Calcium signals. Calcium homeostasis. - Synapses.
- Central nervous system. Brain, midbrain, cerebellum. Effector systems. - Sensory system, skin receptors. Eye, receptor retina, neural retina. Hearing. Vestibular system, taste, smell.
- Endocrine system, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, epiphysis, thyroid gland. Parathyroids, calcium balance, adrenals. Glycogen metabolism. Endocrine gonads.
- Muscle apparatus, striated muscle fiber, mechanics of contraction. Types of contraction, types of muscle fibers.
- Body fluids, blood composition. Hemostasis, lymphatic system. Immune defense.
- Cardiovascular system, electrical activity, contraction. Cardiac cycle. Vessels, flow, pressure, capillaries. Veins, pressure regulation.
- Respiratory system, respiratory dynamics. Lung volumes, gas exchange, oxygen transport. Respiratory control, CO2 transport, perfusion/ventilation ratio.
- Kidney, filtration absorption. Urine concentration, salt/water balance. Acid/base regulation, alkalosis, acidosis.
- Digestive system, digestive glands, stomach. Liver, pancreas. Intestinal motility, absorption.
- Male reproductive system. Female reproductive system, cycle. Fertilization, pregnancy.
- Redox balance and energy balance
Recommended (alternative) handbook:
More synthetic handbooks:
Office hours: By appointment taken via email (in person or remotely).
GIORGIO GRASSELLI (President)
BRUNO PIETRO BURLANDO
Updated information will be posted on the AulaWeb page
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The final test will consist of an oral discussion by will aim at assessing the understanding and knowledge of the topics covered during the class, the ability to accurately present them with specific terminology, and the ability to apply the knowledge acquired will be assessed.