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GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY (PCT)MD)

CODE 60829
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 8 cfu during the 2nd year of 8451 CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (LM-13) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/09
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 2° Semester
    PREREQUISITES
    Prerequisites
    You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
    • Pharmaceutical chemistry and technology 8451 (coorte 2021/2022)
    • MATHEMATICS (PCT)(MD) 55402
    • PHYSICS (PCT)(MD) 55404
    • ANIMAL BIOLOGY AND HUMAN ANATOMY (I.C.)(PCT MD) 64555
    Prerequisites (for future units)
    This unit is a prerequisite for:
    • Pharmaceutical chemistry and technology 8451 (coorte 2021/2022)
    • GENERAL PATHOLOGY (MD PCT) 64192
    • GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY (PCT MD) 64200
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    The class aims at the acquisition of the understanding and knowledge of the physical, chemical, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the vital functions of living organisms, with specific reference to the human species and with references to an evolutionary perspective.
    The class is structured from the analysis of general principles at the molecular and cellular levels, to subsequently consider the interactions between cells in the organs of different systems in the performance of complex physiological functions.

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Understanding of the general principles and common mechanisms regulating cellular functions: intercellular communication; nerve impulse propagation, synaptic transmission, sensory receptors, muscle contraction.

    Understanding of the mechanisms underlying the function of the major organs and systems with reference to human relational and vegetative life: blood circulation, respiration, excretion-osmoregulation, nutrition-bioenergetics; endocrinology; reproduction.

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Attendance, participation in the activities̀ offered in the classroom and individual study will aim at:

    - the comprehension of the common chemical and physical mechanisms regulating cellular functions;

    - the comprehension of the general principles underlying the functions of the organism;

    - the acquisition of the ability to apply the learned concepts; 

    - the acquisition of the specific language of the discipline;

    - the acquisition of synthesis ability of disciplinary contents.

    PREREQUISITES

    Basic elements of Mathematics, Physics and General Chemistry.

    Elements of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, relevant for biological topics.

    Sufficient competence in Cell Biology and Histology for the study of the functions of cells, their molecules and of organs.

    Elements of Anatomy.

    TEACHING METHODS

    The class includes lectures, discussions of theoretical exercises, and supplementary support materials.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    General Principles - Definition of Physiology. - Features of living beings. - Chemical composition of living matter. - Homeostasis and adaptation.

    Cell Physiology.

    - Cell membrane. Diffusion, osmosis. Membrane transport. - Cellular communication. Signal molecules, receptors. Pathways of signal transduction. - Equilibrium and diffusion potentials. Donnan equilibrium, pump and leak model, RVD, RVI. - Membrane currents and EF measurements. Action potential. - Calcium signals. Calcium homeostasis. - Synapses.

    Systems physiology.

    - Central nervous system. Brain, midbrain, cerebellum. Effector systems. - Sensory system, skin receptors. Eye, receptor retina, neural retina. Hearing. Vestibular system, taste, smell.

    - Endocrine system, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, epiphysis, thyroid gland. Parathyroids, calcium balance, adrenals. Glycogen metabolism. Endocrine gonads.

    - Muscle apparatus, striated muscle fiber, mechanics of contraction. Types of contraction, types of muscle fibers.

    - Body fluids, blood composition. Hemostasis, lymphatic system. Immune defense.

    - Cardiovascular system, electrical activity, contraction. Cardiac cycle. Vessels, flow, pressure, capillaries. Veins, pressure regulation.

    - Respiratory system, respiratory dynamics. Lung volumes, gas exchange, oxygen transport. Respiratory control, CO2 transport, perfusion/ventilation ratio.

    - Kidney, filtration absorption. Urine concentration, salt/water balance. Acid/base regulation, alkalosis, acidosis.

    - Digestive system, digestive glands, stomach. Liver, pancreas. Intestinal motility, absorption.

    - Male reproductive system. Female reproductive system, cycle. Fertilization, pregnancy.

    - Redox balance and energy balance

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Recommended (alternative) handbook:

    • Belfiore, Berteotti, Biella, Fisiologia umana. Fondamenti. Ed. Edi-Ermes
    • D’Angelo, Peres, Fisiologia. Ed. Edi-Ermes
    • Koeppen, Stanton, Berne e Levy Fisiologia, Ed. CEA 

    In-depth handbooks:

    • Conti, Fisiologia medica vol.1-2,  Ed. Edi-Ermes
    • Boron, Boulpaep,  Fisiologia medica, Ed. Edra
    • Kandel, Schwartz, Jessell, Principi di Neuroscienze, Ed. CEA

    More synthetic handbooks:

    • Stanfield, Fisiologia, Ed. Edises
    • Silverthorn, Fisiologia umana, Ed. Pearson

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    GIORGIO GRASSELLI (President)

    BRUNO PIETRO BURLANDO

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    Updated information will be posted on the AulaWeb page

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    The final test will consist of an oral discussion by will aim at assessing the understanding and knowledge of the topics covered during the class, the ability to accurately present them with specific terminology, and the ability to apply the knowledge acquired will be assessed.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Oral discussion

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes