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ELEMENTS OF CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

CODE 107034
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 2 cfu during the 3nd year of 8762 SCIENZE BIOLOGICHE (L-13) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/12
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 2° Semester
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    Clinical biochemistry is the discipline of laboratory medicine that quantifies the chemicals present in blood, urine and other body fluids through specific "laboratory tests". The results of these tests are useful to ascertain the state of health of the main organs and apparatuses, to exclude pathologies, to check the effectiveness of therapy and to evaluate the prognosis.

    Eighty percent of clinical decisions are currently guided and informed by laboratory tests. During the course we will systematically address the study of laboratory medicine of the main organs and physiological functions, which is a key part of the diagnostic reasoning process.

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The aim of the clinical biochemistry part of the course is to allow the student to acquire basic knowledge on the clinical-diagnostic significance of the laboratory tests of the “clinical chemistry profile” and of the laboratory test that explore the function of specific organs/apparatuses. This knowledge will be applied to the discussion of simple case-studies, allowing the students to put into practice the basic knowledge acquired and test their understanding of laboratory tests. Students will realize the extent and severity of deviation from the normal range of the laboratory test discussed in the course during pathological conditions. Students will be able to identify the most appropriate laboratory tests to address specific diagnostic hypotheses and evaluate the results in terms of confirming or disproving these hypotheses. 

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Provide the basic knowledge to understand the meaning of the main laboratory parameters that constitute the "chemical-clinical profile", a kind of "physical examination" by means of laboratory tests. Acquire basic knowledge about the units of measurement of these parameters and their dynamic range in pathological conditions. Identify deviations from the norm indicative of pathology.

     

    PREREQUISITES

    basic knowledge in biochemistry and physiology

    TEACHING METHODS

    Face-to-face or video-recorded lessons (in presence), available on aulaweb

    Please refer to the AulaWeb instance specific to the teaching for any updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

    The teacher will illustrate for each parameter the clinical significance, the magnitude of deviation from normal values expected in certain diseases, and in-depth examinations to be performed on the basis of specific diagnostic questions, also discussed on simple clinical cases.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    1-BLOOD

    The complete blood count

    Electrophoretic profile of serum proteins and its diagnostic interpretation

    Principal serum enzymes of diagnostic interest

    Non-protein nitrogen

    Iron metabolism, quantitative and qualitative defects of hemoglobin

    Electrolytes

    Morphological and pathognetic classification of anemias

    2-LIVER FUNCTION TESTS

    Enzymes, bilirubin and jaundice, modifications of serum proteins in selected liver diseases, coagulation factors, diagnosis of selected liver diseases

    3-GLUCOSE METABOLISM

    Hormones regulating glycemia

    Causes of hyper- and hypo-glycemia

    Lab tests in diabetes mellitus

    Lab tests in chetoacidosis, glucose tolerance test, gestational diabetes.

    4-LIPID METABOLISM

    Lipoprotein classification and function

    Reference values for blood lipids

    Hyperlipidemic profiles and cardiovascular risk

    5-URINE ANALYSIS AND TESTS OF RENAL FUNCTION

    The physical-chemical urineanalysis

    Renal functional tests: indicators of glomerular and tubular malfunction

    6-TESTS FOR ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Steroid, peptide and aminoacid-derived hormones: basal levels and pathologic conditions of hyper/hypo-secretion

    Lab tests in the diagnosis of endocrinological disorders

    7- HEART

    Markers of myocardial necrosis and ischemia

    Markers of heart failure

    8-TESTS OF PANCREATIC FUNCTION

    9-ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES AND ACID-BASE BALANCE

    10-INFLAMMATION

    Common markers of inflammation

    Specific markers of inflammation for selected (auto)inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

     

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    on-line available (aula web) slides

    Common laboratory tests - Vaughn G. Appleton & Lange

    Elementi di biochimica clinica, M. Ciaccio, Edises

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    ELENA ZOCCHI (President)

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    2nd semester; schedule decided with the students

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    The examination will consist of a written test (multiple-choice quiz, 30+1 questions) either on site or on-line, in agreement with the University's regulations regarding anti-covid safety standards.

    Please refer to the AulaWeb instance specific to the teaching for any updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    The exam will verify the achievement of the formative objectives; in particular, it will ascertain the student's knowledge of the clinical meaning of the biochemical-clinical parameters presented during the lessons, of the unit of measure in which they are expressed and of their dynamic range in the main pathologies for which they represent a diagnostic-prognostic tool. The ability to choose, among some proposed tests, those suitable to solve a specific diagnostic question, and the ability to identify deviations from the norm indicative of pathology, will be evaluated.

    Please refer to the AulaWeb instance specific to the teaching for possible updates due to changes in the health and epidemiological situation.

    FURTHER INFORMATION

    On-demand tutorials and questions, either in presence (at DIMES, Sez. Biochimica, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 1st floor) or via the Teams platform, by appointment (ezocchi@unige.it).