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EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY

CODE 67948
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 3 cfu during the 2nd year of 9277 INFERMIERISTICA PEDIATRICA(L/SNT1) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR MED/04
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    MODULES This unit is a module of:
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The General Pathology course aims:
    - to provide the knowledge about the etiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases, the physical and chemical causes of disease, the mechanisms of cell injury and cell death, the neoplastic transformation, and the defense responses to injury:
    - to provide an overall comprehension of the mechanisms at the base of inflammation and tissue repair;
    - to develop an adequate knowledge about the immunological mechanisms involved in the immune response against infectious agents and tumors  and in diseases involved in immune system alterations.

    At the end of the course the student will be able:
    - to classify the different causes of disease; 
    - to recognize the adaptation responses to cell injury; 
    - to recognize the morphological and biochemical modifications associated with cell death; 
    - to apply the acquired knowledge on the immune response to explain  defense mechanisms against damaging agents; 
    - to acquire a correct terminology for the proper presentation of the processes examined.

     

    TEACHING METHODS

    The course is organized in frontal lessons and deals with various topics of general pathology, immunology, and immunopathology. These topics are explained by the teachers through Poweroint presentations that are shared with the students. The teachers always recommend the use of a textbook to expand the overall view of the subject.

    If necessary, the lessons could be carried out remotely in online mode using the Teams platform.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    INTRODUCTION

    Fields of interest of General Pathology. Concept of homeostasis. Differences between disease, pathological state, process and phenomenon. Definition of metaplasia and anaplasia.

    GENERAL AETIOLOGY

    Intrinsic and extrinsic causes of disease.

    Intrinsic causes: genetic and chromosomal disorders. Congenital malformations. Aplasia, agenesis and hypoplasia. Embryopathies and fetopathies.

    Physical extrinsic causes. Radiations: definition, classification (corpuscolar and electromagnetic). Non-ionizing and ionizing radiations. Ionizing radiations: direct and indirect effects. Action on cells and tissues. Total body irradiation. Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and teratogenesis by ionizing radiations. Non-ionizing radiations: direct and indirect effects. Acute and chronic action on the skin.

    Mechanical causes. Trauma of superficial tissues and internal organs, osteoarticular trauma. Regeneration and repair. Healing by first or secondary intention. Healing of skin wounds.

    Thermal causes. Thermal balance. Burns and frostbite. Heat stroke.

    Extrinsic chemical causes. Mode of action of pathogenic chemicals. Alteration of the pH: local action of acids and bases. Solvent action. Denaturing action. Toxic action. Definition of concentration at active site, dose, distribution volume, time and route of administration. Classification of venoms  based on their origin. Inherent and acquired defence mechanisms against venoms. General defences. Enzymatic defences: phase I and II enzymes; concepts of isoform, genetic polymorphism, inducibility by substrate. Acquired defences: addiction, antibody production.

    CANCER

    Definition of neoplasia: concepts of autonomy, afinalism, progression. Morphological atypies: tissue, cellular, and subcellular atypies (atypies concerning/of intermitotic nucleus and of mytosis, of the plasmamembrane, of mytochondria, of ribosomes).

    Biochemical atypies. Atypies of the glucidic metabolism (Warburg effect), of the lipidic metabolism, of the azotate metabolism (quantitative and qualitative alterations of protein synthesis). Behaviour atypies; loss af adherence, loss of contact inhbition, acquisition of motility and invasive properties. Metastasis: definition, metastasis routes, concept of organotropism. 

    Molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes and their activation. Alterations of tumor suppressors. Retinoblastoma.

    Etiology of cancer. Initiation and promotion. Inheritance and familiar predisposition. Carcinogenic physical factors. Carcinogenic chemical factors: carcinogen classes. Viral carcinogenesis. Oncogenic retrovirus (rapid and slow); example of oncogenic RNA virus in human beings : HTLV. Oncogenic DNA viruses and concept of transforming proteins; examples of oncogenic DNA viruses in human beings: EBV, HPV, HBV. Relationships between diet and tumors and between hormones and tumors.

    CELLULAR PATHOLOGY

    Cellular adaptations (hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy). Cell injury and cell death: necrosis and apoptosis.

    INFLAMMATION

    Acute inflammation. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines. Systemic effects of inflammation. Acute phase proteins. Classification and outcome of acute inflammation. Chronic inflammation. Granulomas.

    IMMUNOLOGY

    The immune system: general characteristics of the innate and acquired immune response.

    Cells and organs of the immune system. Innate immune response.

    Humoral and cell-mediated immune response. Antigen recognition by B and T cells.

    Humoral immune response: B cell activation and effector mechanisms. Structure and function of antibodies. The complement system.

    Cell-mediated immune response: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Antigen processing and presentation. T cell activation and effector mechanisms. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Helper T lymphocytes. Cytokines. Natural Killer cells.

    Defense mechanisms against viruses and bacteria. Immune response against cancer. Vaccination.

    IMMUNOPATHOLOGY:

    Autoimmunity. Solid organ transplants. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Congenital and acquired immune deficiencies. Hypersensitivity reactions: type I, II, III and IV.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Parola, PATOLOGIA GENERALE, EdiSES
    Pontieri, ELEMENTI DI PATOLOGIA GENERALE Ed. Piccin
    Rubin, PATOLOGIA GENERALE - L’ESSENZIALE, Ed. Piccin

    Immunology e Immunopathology:
    Actor, INTRODUZIONE ALL’IMMUNOLOGIA, Ed. Pearson
    Regueiro Gonzalez et al., BIOLOGIA E PATOLOGIA DEL SISTEMA IMMUNITARIO, Ed. Piccin

    Sompayrac, COME FUNZIONA IL SISTEMA IMMUNITARIO, Ed. Piccin

    Del Gobbo, IMMUNOLOGIA PER LE LAUREE SANITARIE, Ed. Piccin

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    CINZIA MARIA DOMENICOTTI (President)

    ANNA MARIA SCHITO

    VALERIO GAETANO VELLONE

    CLAUDIA CANTONI (President and Coordinator of Integrated Course)

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    First semester, October 2022

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    The exam consists of an oral test and takes place in the presence of two teachers. The interview lasts approximately 30 minutes for each student and is focused on the whole coursework covered during the lectures.  

    If necessary, the exam could be carried out remotely in online mode using the Teams platform.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Through the discussion of different topics, the committee verifies the fulfillment of the expected learning outcomes. In particular, the following issues will be assessed: the basic knowledge of the topics covered in the course; the ability to classify the different causes of disease and to explain the mechanisms underlying inflammation and the immune response.The ability to explain, summarize, and assimilate the program contents will also be evaluated.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    23/01/2023 14:00 GENOVA prova orale con accettazione on line Sede d'esame: centro Formazione IGG
    20/03/2023 14:00 GENOVA prova orale con accettazione on line Sede d'esame: centro Formazione IGG
    12/06/2023 14:00 GENOVA prova orale con accettazione on line Sede d'esame: centro Formazione IGG
    03/07/2023 14:00 GENOVA prova orale con accettazione on line Sede d'esame: centro Formazione IGG
    11/09/2023 14:00 GENOVA prova orale con accettazione on line Sede d'esame: centro Formazione IGG