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PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY OF SUPERCONDUCTOR MAGNETS

CODE 87010
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 6 cfu during the 1st year of 9012 FISICA(LM-17) - GENOVA
  • 6 cfu during the 2nd year of 9012 FISICA(LM-17) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR FIS/01
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    PREREQUISITES
    Prerequisites
    You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
    • PHYSICS 9012 (coorte 2021/2022)
    • SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 61865
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    the course presents the fundamental concepts relating to the physics and technology of superconducting magnets, illustrating their main fields of application

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The course provides the knowledge of the physical processes that underlie the functioning of superconducting magnets and manufacturing technologies. Provides the fundamental skills, conceptual and practical, for design, with particular regard to magnets for particle physics (magnets for accelerators and for detectors).

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Students will learn the fundamental concepts for understanding the functioning of superconducting magnets: cryogenics, superconducting dynamic regimes, flux pinning, critical current density, concepts of adiabatic and cryogenic stability, dissipative effects, quench. They will learn which superconducting materials are used in applications and their properties. They will learn to solve complex magnetostatic problems even in the presence of ferromagnetic materials. They will learn the problems of mechanics associated with superconducting magnets (thermal contractions, Lorentz forces) and the basics of design. They will be introduced to the use of computational tools for solving multiphysics problems (electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical). They will have an overview of the main magnetic configurations used (solenoids, toroids, multipolar magnets) and will learn the concepts and methods for their design and implementation.

    TEACHING METHODS

    Combination of traditional lectures, tutorial for finite element computation and a visit to an industry involved in superconducting magnet development.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    Introduction to the course - Applications of superconducting magnets 1h
    Cryogenic elements 5h
    Background
    Cryogenic fluids
    Thermodynamics (review of some concepts)
    Heat transmission and thermal loads
    Dewar and Cryostats
    Effects of low temperatures on material properties
    Cooling with cryogenic liquids
    Liquefiers and cryogenerators
    Superconducting wires and cables 8h
    Flows and dynamic regimes
    Critical current
    Experimental methods for measuring the critical current (volt-amperometric method, inductive method, magnetization measurements)
    Flux jump
    Composite superconductors: superconducting wires
    Materials (NbTi, A15, MgB2, HTS)
    Dissipations in variable regime 2h
    Critical state model
    Hysteretic losses
    Losses for inter-filament couplings
    Losses for inter-strand coupling
    6h superconducting magnets
    Spectrum of disturbances
    Adiabatic stability
    Cryogenic stability
    Degradation and training
    Accelerators and particle detectors 2h
    Magnets: power supply, persistent regime, quench and 4h protection
    Current distribution and magnetic fields 6h
    Solenoids
    Toroids
    Dipoles, quadrupoles and multipoles
    Canted Cosϑ magnets (CCT)
    Introduction to finite element analysis 2h
    Lorentz forces and mechanics associated with 8h magnets
    Stress and strain diagrams
    Stress tensor and derivation of the main stresses
    Generalized Hooke's law, treatment for isotropic means
    Yield criteria
    Causes of stress in magnets: differential thermal contractions and Lorentz forces
    Mechanical structure in the solenoids
    Mechanical structure in dipoles and quadrupoles
    The preload principle
    Design examples of magnets made 4h
    The solenoid of the CMS experiment at CERN
    The D2 dipole for High Luminosity LHC
    The quadrupole prototype for SuperB

     

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    1) M.N. Wilson  Superconducting Magnets Clarendon Press Publication
    2) Y.Iwasa Case Studies in Superconducting Magnets  Springer Science & Business Media, 1994
    3) E Wilson An introduction to Particle Accelerators Oxford University press
    4) J.P.A. Bastos , N Sadowski Electromagnetic Modeling by Finite Element Methods Marcel Dekker Inc

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    First semester

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Oral exam with dissertation on a specific topic agreed with the teachers plus a question on a topic covered in the course.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Dissertation on a specific subject agreed with the Lecturer complemented with an oral exam, including a presentation of the study reported in the dissertation (Weight 50%). Questions about the performed study are asked  during presentation (Weight 25%).  Finally the student is asked to answer one question about a topic of the course program (Weight 25%).

    Through the oral examination, the commission is able to assess the degree of knowledge of the subjects exposed, the clarity and the ability to summarize of the student.

    FURTHER INFORMATION

    Although the lectures will be delivered in Italian, the Lecturer can provide a comprehensive collection of teaching materials in English to prepare for the final exam, and this exam can be taken in English