|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||MED/04|
|MODULES||This unit is a module of:|
Immunology is the science that studies the immune system, an integrated set of molecules and cells that operate in a coordinated manner to maintain the homeostasis of the organism and protect it from external agents, such pathogens and their products, food, chemicals, drugs, pollens and more. The course also will address the main changes in the immune system that affect the immune-mediated disease mechanisms.
The purpose is to educate the knowledge of the structural and molecular mechanisms responsible for immune recognition of the signs of infection and damage to the tissues; to know the phenotypic and functional characteristics of the major immune cell populations responsible for the various stages of immune responses to injury; to know the mechanisms of integration and regulation of the answers themselves and learn the signaling mechanisms and the main pathways of signal transduction; to learn the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the alterations of the immune response.
At the end of the course the student must have acquired the fundamental knowledge on the cellular and molecular bases of the innate and adaptive immune responses, on their dynamic integration and on the mechanisms of control of immune responses. Specifically, the student will be able to: describe the organization of the immune response to the different types of insults; the peculiarities of the different components of the immune system; the main pathophysiological mechanisms of immune-mediated diseases.
The course consists of 10 hours of lectures in the classroom. Lectures in the classroom are delivered through multimedia presentations. The attendance at lessons is strongly recommended.
Features of the immune system
The primary and secondary lymphoid organs: Bone Marrow and Timo (structure and characteristics), spleen and lymph nodes, the Associated Lymphoid Tissue mucosa (MALT)
The immune cells: a) features and functions of innate immunity cells (granulocytes, monocytes and macrophages, natural killer) ; b) features and functions of T and B lymphocytes
Innate Immune Response (natural) and specific (acquired): main features and phases of the immune response.
The complement (signs)
Hypothesis of clonal selection (signs).
Maturation of lymphocytes T and B.
The antigen receptor of T and B lymphocytes
Antigens: general characteristics and definition of epitope.
Antibodies: structure and function of antibodies, antibody classes.
The antigens of the major histocompatibility system class I and II (MHC): structure and function
Processing and presentation of antigens to T lymphocytes
Immune cell-mediated and humoral responses.
Activation and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes
Cytokines and chemokines: their role in the immune response
The immune response to pathogens
Antigen-antibody reaction ( precipitation, agglutination, hemagglutination, complement fixation, immunoenzymatic reactions, reactions radioimmunoassay, immunofluorescence)
Hypersensitivity reactions: classification and general features.
Autoimmunity: organ-specific autoimmune diseases and systemic (signs)
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (signs).
Secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies: AIDS. (signs)
TOOLS IN SUPPORT OF TEACHING: All the slides used during the lectures and other teaching material will be available on AulaWeb at the end of lessons in PDF format.
TOOLS IN SUPPORT OF TEACHING: Copy of slides projected in class
Office hours: Students have the possibility to contact Gabriella Pietra by e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org) or by phone (010 5558219) and ask for an appointment. Address 1: Laboratorio di Immunologia CBA/ Pad 90, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino Address 2: Sezione di Patologia Generale - DIMES, Via L. Alberti, 2
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The exam consists of an oral test and takes place in the presence of the Course teachers. The interview lasts about 25 minutes and focuses on the program carried out during the lectures. Through the discussion of various topics, the Commission verifies the achievement of the educational objectives envisaged by the teaching.
At the end of the interview, the teachers of the Commission formulate a final vote which derives from the overall judgment of the candidate.
The grade of 30/30 with honors will be awarded when the knowledge / skills of the subject are excellent
The oral exam will mainly focus on the topics covered during the lectures and will aim to verify the achievement of the appropriate level of knowledge and in-depth study of the topics covered. In particular, during the interview, the student will have to demonstrate: to know the role and function of the cellular and molecular elements involved in the immune processes; to have acquired an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of response at the cellular and molecular level of the immune system and its regulation; to know the alterations of the immune system due to illness. During the interview the ability to present the topics clearly and with correct terminology will also be evaluated.
Regular class attendance is strongly recommended.