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CODE 84444
Propedeuticità in ingresso
Per sostenere l'esame di questo insegnamento è necessario aver sostenuto i seguenti esami:


The teaching is divided into two parts. The first part is dedicated to geobotany, including autoecology (relationships between environmental factors and vascular plants at the species level), chorology (geographical distribution of plants) and plant synecology (study of plant communities, habitats and plant landscape ). The second is dedicated to various application themes (biomonitoring, green technologies, Nature Based Solutions, phytoremediation, etc.)



The teaching aims to provide the theoretical bases and methodological tools for the knowledge of the main floristic and vegetational aspects of plant cover, for the interpretation of the natural and human causes that determine it, for the study of plant components in the analysis and interpretation of ecosystems. In particular, and with greater detail, aspects and characteristics of the flora and vegetation of Liguria are described.


The module aims to enable students to understand and use data concerning current and past flora and vegetation obtained from specialized texts, floristic and vegetational cartography, management plans for institutions and protected areas, etc. In particular, the sequence of the topics addressed and their correlation are intended to guide the student along a logical path that, in addition to providing the disciplinary content of the subject, helps to develop an autonomous capacity for analyzing the reality, assessment of environmental complexity and of the degree of naturalness / modification of the plant component, and application of the results of the analysis to the purposes from time to time required by the research. One of the main aspects of the course is the stimulus to continuous correlations between ecological factors (climate, soil, animals, human activities) and distribution characteristics and the ability to associate species and phytocenosis from the global (biomes) to the local (plant associations). Another fundamental concept that is provided is the tendency of plant populations to change over time, until a more or less stable equilibrium is reached with the local ecological conditions (vegetation series). The module also allows the student to deal with application issues related to the most innovative and eco-sustainable technologies for the use of plants for the improvement of the environment.


Passing the exam of systematic Botany, considered preparatory, should ensure sufficient knowledge of at least the main tree and shrub species characteristic of the different types of vegetation in Italy. A general knowledge of the concepts and language of ecology and in particular of plant ecology is also indispensable; of this, however, the most important elements are mentioned at the beginning of the course.


The course includes frontal lessons and exercises in the classroom and fieldwork. The lessons are held with the help of Powerpoint presentations that illustrate the concepts and the contents expressed orally by the teacher. This material is then made available to students in the course site of Aulaweb.

In the case of measures to combat any health emergency, lessons and exercises will take place remotely, via TEAMS program


Principles of plant ecology: environmental factors and plant adaptations; Raunkiaer Biological forms. Chorology:  distribution types; Geographic and taxonomic relics; endemism; Geographical and ecological vicariance. Chorotypes of Italian flora; Chorological spectra. Floristic kingdoms. Modifications of the distribution area; Biogeographic models of dispersion, vicariance, ecology and integrated model.  Floristic features of the Ligurian flora. Biodiversity: concept and evaluation criteria; Richness and specific variety, gradients of diversity in space and time. Biomes. Study of vegetation: structural and functional features of phytocenoses; Dynamics of vegetation: successions, steady stages.  Bioclimatic vegetation belts in Italy and in Liguria; Species typical of the main vegetal environments in Liguria. Phytosociology: criteria and methods, nomenclature, syntaxonomy, main classes of European vegetation; Mapping of vegetation; Description of plant landscapes: synphytosociology. Applied Bonany: History of Vegetation and its Methods of Study. Examples of applications of geobotany and archaeobotany to studies of historical ecology and environmental archaeology. The course is held in the classroom and in the field.


for the preparation of the exam, in addition to the lessons and exercises, it is recommended to read specialized texts, among which we highlight:


UBALDI D., 2012 - Guida allo studio della flora e della vegetazione. CLUEB. Bologna.

(eventually, previous editions, eg. UBALDI D., 2003 – Flora, fitocenosi e ambiente.  Elementi di Geobotanica e Fitosociologia. Clueb. Bologna.)

PIGNATTI S.,1976 - Geobotanica. In: CAPPELLETTI, Botanica, vol. II. UTET. Torino.

PIGNATTI S. et al., 1995 -Ecologia vegetale. UTET. Torino.

PIGNATTI S., 1994 - Ecologia del paesaggio. UTET. Torino

other sources:

EHRENDORFER, 1979 – Geobotanica. In: STRASBURGER, Trattato di Botanica, parte sistematica. Delfino Editore.

CANEVA G. (a cura di), 2005 – La biologia vegetale per i Beni culturali. Vol II. Conoscenza e valorizzazione. Nardini Editore. Firenze. 500 pp. (per la Geobotanica storica, specialmente cap. 10, ma anche capp. 1,3,8).

POLUNIN O. e WALTERS M., 1987 – Guida alle vegetazioni d'Europa. Zanichelli. Bologna.

GIACOMINI V., FENAROLI L., 1958 - La Flora. Collana "Conosci l'Italia.". T.C.I. Milano.


Exam Board


ENRICA ROCCOTIELLO (President Substitute)



The lessons of the first semester will start from September 2020, and will be completed by January  2021. The lessons of the second semester will start from February  2021 and will be completed by June 12, 2021. Refer to the detailed timetable below link:



The knowledge of the course arguments and the ability to expose them correctly are evaluated through an oral exam that implies three to four questions that span throughout the program and the exercises carried out.

In case of health emergency (covid-19) exams could be carried out remotely, by means of Teams web program


Besides the oral test, on the basis of which the examination score will be given, during the year tests can be carried out to periodically assess the learning, in addition to an initial test that provides the teacher with a framework of pre-existing botanical knowledge of students and allows some integration, if needed.

Exam schedule

Data appello Orario Luogo Degree type Note
12/06/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
10/07/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
24/07/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
04/09/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
18/09/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale


Regular attendance to the lessons is strongly recommended, and especially to the field exercises; attendance  is compulsory for participants of the Naturalistic Campaign at the end of the third year.