|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/10|
|MODULES||This unit is a module of:|
Provide basic knowledge on the structure and function of biomolecules, which are indispensable for understanding the vital processes of cells and organs, with particular reference to metabolic processes and their regulation mechanisms. Furthermore, students will be able to understand mechanisms throgh information present in DNA to translate into cellular functions.
Attendance and participation in the planned educational activities (frontal lessons ) will allow the student to acquire the necessary knowledge to face the study of Physiology.
Specifically, the student will be able to understand, learn and describe, at a molecular level, the structure-function relationship of metabolites and proteins with particular attention to those with enzyme activity. He will be able to use this knowledge for the learning of biochemistry of the main catabolic and anabolic processes.
The teaching consists of lectures. The attendance at lectures is strongly recommended.
Lectures in the classroom are delivered through the use of multimedia presentations and the constant use of the blackboard for the writing of molecular structures and the description of the different metabolic pathways.
Biomolecules and their structure
Functional groups of organic compounds of biochemical interest. Definition, raw and structure formula of carbohydrates. Identification of chiral and sugar stereochemical centers. Furanosic and piranosic forms. Structure and formation of hemiacetal bonds in the hexoses and pentoses. Sugar structures: glucose, and fructose. Glycosidic bonds; structure disaccharides. Polysaccharides structure of biochemical interest. Reducing and non-reducing ends of polysaccharides.
Nitrogenous Bases and Nucleic Acids
Pyrimidine and Purinie bases and their tautomeric forms. Nucleosides and nucleotides, structure of ATP, ADP and AMP. Deoxy nucleosides and nucleotides. Esters and pyrophosphoric bonds of ATP. Phosphodiester bond.
Amino Acids and Proteins
General Properties of Standard aminoacids (AA). Chirality of Amino Acids Distribution in classes of 20 Standard Amino Acids. Definition of Amino Acid Standard . Formation of the peptide bond and its geometric isomerism. Definition of polypeptide and protein. Primary structure of a protein. N- and C-terminal amino acids of a polypeptide and/or protein. Regular protein folding formulas and details about the formation of hydrogen bonds: parallel and anti-parallel folded sheets. Major regular structures of proteins.Hemoglobin: structure and function. Bohr effect.
Coenzymes and Vitamins
Vitamins and Coenzymes. NAD+ and NADP+ pyridine co-enzymes: oxide/reductive interconversions.
Generality on metabolic pathways. Regulation. Energy metabolism and regulatory metabolism. Glutathione metabolism.
Glycolysis.Glycogen.Gluconeogenesis. Pyruvic acid oxidative decarboxylation. Krebs cycle with mass balance and energy balance. Cory Cycle. Anaplerotic reactions. Electron transport chain. Respiratory Compounds. . Shuttle systems. ADP-ATP translocase. Lipid metabolism. Lipase. Carnitine. B -oxidation of saturated fatty acids. Ketone bodies. Saturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Nitrogen metabolism. Carbamyl Phosphate Synthesis. Transaminase (GPT and GOT). Deamination of glutamate. Ammonia toxicity. Glutamine synthetase. Alanine cycle. Urea cycle..
All slides used during the lessons and other educational material will be available on AulaWeb at the end of each cycle of lectures along with other bibliographic material in pdf format.
The books indicated are suggested as a supporting text and are available and can be consulted together with other books for further information by the teacher.
Texts advised for further information:Voet-Voet-Pratt Fondamenti di Biochimica-Zanichelli
Nelson-Cox-I principi di biochimica di Lehninger -Zanichelli
Berg-Tymoczko-Stryer-Biochimica - Zanichelli
Garret-Grisham – Principi di Biochimica- Piccin
Ringe-Petsko- Struttura e funzione delle proteine- Zanichelli
The lessons of the first semester will start from September 23, 2019, and will be completed by January 17, 2020. The lessons of the second semester will start from February 17, 2020 and will be completed by June 12, 2020. Refer to the detailed timetable below link: https://easyacademy.unige.it/portalestudenti/
The oral exam lasts about 30 minutes / student on the topics covered in class.
Usually the student is asked three questions of increasing difficulty aimed at assessing the degree of deepening of the subject and preparation of the student.
Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of detail required for each topic will be provided at the beginning of the course and repeated during lectures.
The oral exam will focus on the topics covered during the lectures and will aim to assess the achievement of the appropriate level of knowledge, the ability to use theoretical notions to integrate the different key concepts of metabolism and the key role of some molecules. The ability to present the topics clearly and with correct terminology will also evaluated.
Attendance at lectures is strongly recommended.