|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/06|
Prerequisites (for future units)
This class concerns the functional anatomy of vertebrate systems, with maximum emphasis on the ontogenetic and phylogenetic context. The approach is strongly focused on the evolution of the structures.
The comparative anatomy covers the anatomy of several systems in vertebrates with focus on homology and differences in different taxa, according to their evolution and functional aspects. It provides elements of evolutionary history and of comparative descriptive embryology of vertebrates.
1 - The student will be able to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between the major taxa of living and extinct chordates.
2 - The student will be able to describe, using appropriate language, the main events in the embryonic development of vertebrates.
3 - The student will be able to describe, using appropriate language, the anatomy and evolution of main vertebrate systems.
4 - For Biological Science only: the student will be able to describe, using appropriate language, the microscopic anatomy of several organs of vertebrates.
5 - The student will be able to compare the structures in the different vertebrates, underlining the homologies and, where possible, the evolutionary paths, the plesiomorphic and apomorphic features.
6 - For Biological Science only: the student will acquire the ability to observe anatomical preparations, dissected anatomical parts, and anatomical models, managing to apply the theoretical notions to the description of the images.
Basic knowledge of cytology and histology is required to effectively address the class content.
For Biological Sciences (8+1 credits): 64 hours of lectures delivered alternatively through multimedia presentations or by schematizing on the blackboard + 16 hours of workshop alternatively held in classroom, computer classroom, and laboratory equipped with microscopes, models, samples and dissection tools. Attending to 75% of workshop hours (12 h) is mandatory.
For Environmental and Natural Sciences (5 credits): 40 hours of lectures delivered alternatively through multimedia presentations or by schematizing on the blackboard.
For both Biological Sciences and Environmental and Natural Sciences, self-assessment tests will be available on Aulaweb and using Kahoot or Microsoft form during the lectures
The following list of topics is for the students of both the Degree Course in Environmental and Natural Sciences (5 credits) and the Degree Course in Biological Sciences (9 credits), except when otherwise specified.
Evolution of vertebrates.
Types of oocytes and development. Segmentation, gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis. Phylotypic stage of vertebrates.
Anatomical description of organs and systems with special focus on phylogeny and ontogeny. In detail:
Digestive system, for Biological Science only: macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of vertebrates. Dissection and observation of digestive system.
Respiratory system: anatomy and evolution of gills, air-filled sacs, and lungs. For Biological Science only: microscopic anatomy of respiratory organs, dissection and observation of gills.
Cardiovascular system: anatomy and evolution of heart and main blood vessels. For Biological Science only: observation of heart models and samples.
Skeletal system: anatomy and evolution of vertebrate skeleton. For Biological Sciences only: observation of specimens from the Comparative Anatomy Museum of DISTAV and of skeletal models.
Locomotor system, for Biological Sciences only: types of muscle, dissection and observation of skeletal elements, muscles, tendons, articulation, ligaments.
Nervous system: anatomy and evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. For Biological Sciences only: anatomy of the autonomic nervous system, observation of brain models and anatomical preparations.
Sense organs: anatomy and evolution of the olfactory system, eye, ear, lateral line. For Biological Sciences only: microscopic anatomy of the olfactory system, eye, taste buds, electroreceptors, tactile structures, observation of anatomical models and preparations.
Integumentary system: anatomy and evolution of skin and skin annexes in vertebrates. For Biological Sciences only: microscopic anatomy of skin and skin annexes.
Excretory system: anatomy and evolution of the excretory system in vertebrates. For Biological Sciences only: microscopic anatomy of the excretory structures.
Reproductive system: anatomy of gonads in anamniotes and amniotes, evolution of genital ducts in vertebrates.
Endocrine system, for Biological Sciences only: anatomy and evolution of main endocrine elements in vertebrates.
All the slides used during the lessons and other teaching material will be available on Aulaweb, after each lesson or topic. In addition, as a support for the study, the Italian books
Stingo - Anatomia Comparata Edi-Ermes editions
Caputo Barucchi Il vertebrato che è in noi. Anatomia comparata ed evoluzione del corpo umano Utet Universitaria
(English) Kardong - Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution
Office hours: Students can book appointments with the professor
SARA FERRANDO (President)
SIMONA CANDIANI (President Substitute)
STEFANO AICARDI (Substitute)
CRISTIANO ANGELINI (Substitute)
TIZIANA BACHETTI (Substitute)
MATTEO BOZZO (Substitute)
MARIO PESTARINO (Substitute)
The exam consists of oral answers to questions posed by the teacher.
Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of detail required for each topic are provided during the lessons.
The oral exam covers the topics covered during the lectures. The ability to expose topics using the correct terminology is also evaluated.
For students of the Degree Course in Biological Sciences only, the exam will regard constructing simple cladograms, recognizing and describing photographs of anatomical structures at macroscopic and microscopic level, anatomical models and preparations.