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PHARMACOLOGY

CODE 57289
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 6 cfu during the 3nd year of 8762 SCIENZE BIOLOGICHE (L-13) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/14
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    PREREQUISITES
    Prerequisites
    You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
    • Biological Sciences 8762 (coorte 2020/2021)
    • INSTITUTIONS OF MATHEMATICS 52344
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

       
       
       
       
       
       
       

    Pharmacology deals with drugs, therefore with exogenous molecules which interacting with endogenous molecules determine functional variations of biological systems. Pharmacology has close links with other disciplines such as biochemistry, physiology, pathology. Pharmacology is characterized by a quantitive approach: the quantification of the effect of a molecule on a biological system allows its characterization as a drug, exploitable from a therapeutic point of view, or as a toxicant. On this basis, the course aims to provide knowledge on the interactions of exogenous molecules (drugs) and endogenous molecules (receptors) present at the level of biological systems, and on the variations in biological systems resulting from these interactions

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Provide adequate basic knowledge on the interactions of exogenous molecules (drugs etc.) and endogenous molecules present at the level of biological systems (enzymes, receptors etc.).Goals include basic knowledge about the functional effects and the impact of the aforementioned interactions on the biological systems.

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Aims: Providing updated knowledge on:

    Pharmacodynamic, mechanisms of action of drugs, drug targets and receptors, drug-receptor interaction;

    Pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion of a drug)

    From the drug administration to the drug effects: primary and secondary effects, adverse drug reactions.

    Providing knowledge on variability of the response to drugs.

    Principles of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomic and gender-specific pharmacology; individualization of the therapy.

    Representative classes of drugs and application of general pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic principles of pharmacology to molecules belonging to specific drug classes.

    Learning outcomes: Definition of drug, pharmacological target, mechanisms of action of drug. Knowledge of basic concepts of drug administration and pharmacokinetic principles, adverse drug reactions. Application of basic concepts to single drug classes.

    PREREQUISITES

    ISTITUZIONI DI MATEMATICHE 52344

    TEACHING METHODS

    Lectures

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY - definitions - structurally specific and non-specific drugs - from the molecular mechanism of action to the drug effect. Pharmacology: branches of pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, definitions of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, gender-specific pharmacology.

    DRUG RECEPTORS - Classification of membrane and intracellular receptors. Metabotropic receptors: structure - signal transduction mechanisms. Ionotropic receptors - classification. Class I receptors structure

    QUANTITATIVE PHARMACOLOGY - Receptor theories. Agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, inverse agonist. Affinity of an agonist; intrinsic activity - Affinity of an agonist, pD2; Intrinsic activity, alpha:  limits of validity. Agonists and partial agonists: calculation of the pD2 value; calculation of the value of alpha.  Antagonists - competitive antagonism and non-competitive antagonisms. Affinity of an antagonist - pA2. Definition and calculation of the pA2 value

    PHARMACOKINETICS: introduction to ADME (Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion). Passage of drugs across membranes. Passive diffusion, passive transport, active transport, pinocytosis and endocytosis; passage from one compartment to another: cerebral capillaries, hepatic sinusoids.

    Absorption of drugs and routes of administration for drugs - general information. Route of administration: sublingual, oral, rectal. Inhalation drug administration. Cutaneous drug administration. Parenteral routes of drug administration, Intravenous - intramuscular - subcutaneous.

    Distribution of drugs. Volume of distribution. Drug binding to plasma protein

    Drug metabolism. Oxidations, reductions, hydrolysis. Conjugation reactions

    Elimination of drugs. Gastrointestinal and hepatic excretion. Renal excretion Secondary routes of drug elimination - salivary, lacrimal, milk

    Introduction to pharmacokinetic modeling.

    VARIABILITY OF THE PHARMACOLOGICAL RESPONSE - predictable and unpredictable variables - Therapeutic index. Adverse drug effects - Teratogenesis

    Introduction to Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics; Gender-specific pharmacology

    R&D. Drug research and development

    BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DRUGS

    ANTIULCER DRUGS. Characteristics, drug classes, therapeutic use, side effects

    NON-STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS - NSAID. General characteristics, drug classes, therapeutic use, side effects

    GENERAL ANESTHETICS. General information, classes of drugs, clinical use

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    • Golan DE et al – Principi di farmacologia – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
    • Goodman & Gilmans – Le basi farmacologiche della terapia – McGraw-Hill

     Slides from lectures (downloading from Aula WEB)

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    MANUELA MARCOLI (President)

    CHIARA CERVETTO (President Substitute)

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    For lessons start and timetable go to the link: https://easyacademy.unige.it/portalestudenti/

     

    Please check the module Aulaweb page for timetable updates dependent on the sanitary and epidemic situation.

     

    Class schedule

    PHARMACOLOGY

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Oral examination

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Questions to figure out the student knowing and understanding. Questions to assess the level of knowledge, insight, and critical knowledge of the topics

     

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    16/01/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale
    30/01/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale
    20/02/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale
    12/06/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale
    26/06/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale
    17/07/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale
    18/09/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale

    FURTHER INFORMATION

    Course attendance is recommended