|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/14|
Pharmacology deals with drugs, therefore with exogenous molecules which interacting with endogenous molecules determine functional variations of biological systems. Pharmacology has close links with other disciplines such as biochemistry, physiology, pathology. Pharmacology is characterized by a quantitive approach: the quantification of the effect of a molecule on a biological system allows its characterization as a drug, exploitable from a therapeutic point of view, or as a toxicant. On this basis, the course aims to provide knowledge on the interactions of exogenous molecules (drugs) and endogenous molecules (receptors) present at the level of biological systems, and on the variations in biological systems resulting from these interactions
Provide adequate basic knowledge on the interactions of exogenous molecules (drugs etc.) and endogenous molecules present at the level of biological systems (enzymes, receptors etc.).Goals include basic knowledge about the functional effects and the impact of the aforementioned interactions on the biological systems.
Aims: Providing updated knowledge on:
Pharmacodynamic, mechanisms of action of drugs, drug targets and receptors, drug-receptor interaction;
Pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion of a drug)
From the drug administration to the drug effects: primary and secondary effects, adverse drug reactions.
Providing knowledge on variability of the response to drugs.
Principles of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomic and gender-specific pharmacology; individualization of the therapy.
Representative classes of drugs and application of general pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic principles of pharmacology to molecules belonging to specific drug classes.
Learning outcomes: Definition of drug, pharmacological target, mechanisms of action of drug. Knowledge of basic concepts of drug administration and pharmacokinetic principles, adverse drug reactions. Application of basic concepts to single drug classes.
ISTITUZIONI DI MATEMATICHE 52344
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY - definitions - structurally specific and non-specific drugs - from the molecular mechanism of action to the drug effect. Pharmacology: branches of pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, definitions of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, gender-specific pharmacology.
DRUG RECEPTORS - Classification of membrane and intracellular receptors. Metabotropic receptors: structure - signal transduction mechanisms. Ionotropic receptors - classification. Class I receptors structure
QUANTITATIVE PHARMACOLOGY - Receptor theories. Agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, inverse agonist. Affinity of an agonist; intrinsic activity - Affinity of an agonist, pD2; Intrinsic activity, alpha: limits of validity. Agonists and partial agonists: calculation of the pD2 value; calculation of the value of alpha. Antagonists - competitive antagonism and non-competitive antagonisms. Affinity of an antagonist - pA2. Definition and calculation of the pA2 value
PHARMACOKINETICS: introduction to ADME (Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion). Passage of drugs across membranes. Passive diffusion, passive transport, active transport, pinocytosis and endocytosis; passage from one compartment to another: cerebral capillaries, hepatic sinusoids.
Absorption of drugs and routes of administration for drugs - general information. Route of administration: sublingual, oral, rectal. Inhalation drug administration. Cutaneous drug administration. Parenteral routes of drug administration, Intravenous - intramuscular - subcutaneous.
Distribution of drugs. Volume of distribution. Drug binding to plasma protein
Drug metabolism. Oxidations, reductions, hydrolysis. Conjugation reactions
Elimination of drugs. Gastrointestinal and hepatic excretion. Renal excretion Secondary routes of drug elimination - salivary, lacrimal, milk
Introduction to pharmacokinetic modeling.
VARIABILITY OF THE PHARMACOLOGICAL RESPONSE - predictable and unpredictable variables - Therapeutic index. Adverse drug effects - Teratogenesis
Introduction to Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics; Gender-specific pharmacology
R&D. Drug research and development
ANTIULCER DRUGS. Characteristics, drug classes, therapeutic use, side effects
NON-STEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS - NSAID. General characteristics, drug classes, therapeutic use, side effects
GENERAL ANESTHETICS. General information, classes of drugs, clinical use
Slides from lectures (downloading from Aula WEB)
Office hours: By appointment
Office hours: By appointment
MANUELA MARCOLI (President)
CHIARA CERVETTO (President Substitute)
For lessons start and timetable go to the link: https://easyacademy.unige.it/portalestudenti/
Please check the module Aulaweb page for timetable updates dependent on the sanitary and epidemic situation.
Questions to figure out the student knowing and understanding. Questions to assess the level of knowledge, insight, and critical knowledge of the topics
Course attendance is recommended