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CODE 61617
  • 6 cfu during the 3nd year of 8762 SCIENZE BIOLOGICHE (L-13) - GENOVA
    LANGUAGE Italian
  • SEMESTER 2° Semester
    You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
    • Biological Sciences 8762 (coorte 2020/2021)


    The course aims to provide the student with basic knowledge (molecular, genetic and cellular) to interpret the fundamental mechanisms of cell damage and defense of the organism.



    Aim of the Course is to provide the student with basic knowledge (at molecular and cellular levels) for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of cell response to damage. A relevant part of the course is focused on the defense mechanisms toward a "stressor" stimulus and how this triggers cell/tissue/organ morpho-functional alterations. These issues are well addressed by learning of inflammatory and immunological responses, closely related to each other. Particular attention will be given to the natural and acquired mechanisms of the inflammatory and immune process against bacterial and viral pathogens, the organization of the immune system, the involved different cells, the mechanisms of antigen recognition, the differentiation and activation of B and T lymphocytes, the development of their effector responses. Moreover the mechanisms underlying the tolerance towards its constituents and the main immune mechanisms of pathological relevance will be explained.


    The teaching aims to provide students

    • the notions necessary to understand causes (endogenous or exogenous) of cell damage and defense mechanisms
    • a general understanding of how the immune system works and how it defends the body's well-being

    At the end of the course, the student will be able to

    • Know the causes and mechanisms of cell and tissue damage
    • Recognize the characteristics and indicators of an inflammatory process and an adaptive immunity response, in particular the antibody one
    • Know the benefits and possible negative effects of the immune response
    • Become aware of the existence of some frequent human pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, and of some innovative therapeutic techniques, such as bone marrow transplant



    Prerequisites: notions of Cytology, Histology, Physiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Developmental Biology.


    The teaching activity is carried out through lectures with the aid of on-screen presentations. The teaching material is available in pdf version on Teams or aulaweb, to allow the student to learn and deepen the topics indicated in the course program and required for passing the final exam.

    In case of changes in the health and epidemiological situation, the lessons will be held at a distance (Teams).

    There are no student reception hours, but students can contact the teachers by email in order to make an appointment for further explanations.


    • BIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS: state of health, concept of injury, sign, symptom and disease. Cell damage mechanisms. Aging.

    • Notes on extrinsic causes of disease: chemical, physical and biological causes

    • CELL RESPONSE TO DAMAGE: reversible damage, persistent damage - adaptation (atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia); irreversible damage: cell death (necrosis, apoptosis). Role of heat shock proteins in the response to damage and in the control of cell functions and the response to misfolded proteins (UPR).

    • PRINCIPLES OF ROOT PATHOLOGY: reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: biological actions and involvement in cell damage.

    Antioxidant defenses.

    • INNATE IMMUNITY: cells and molecules, local and systemic inflammation, acute and chronic, histological variants of inflammation with examples of pathologies

    • ADAPTATIVE IMMUNITY: generation, education and functions of B and T lymphocytes

    • PATHOLOGIES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: type I hypersensitivity and notes on immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity and auto-inflammatory diseases with some examples of pathologies


    • ATHEROSCLEROSIS and notes on ischemic heart disease

    LABORATORY: theoretical-practical applications of basic methods suitable for the in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of compounds (e.g. MTT assay, Alamar Blue), setting up of dynamic in vitro systems with the use of millifluidic bioreactors, preparation of cell lysates on which to perform protein dosage and dedicated seminars.


    • Robbins and Cotran: The pathological basis of diseases (Elsevier)

    • Abbas, Lichtman: Cellular and Molecular Immunology (Elsevier)

    Students with SLD, disability or other special educational needs certification are strongly encouraged to contact the teachers at the beginning of the course to agree on teaching methods which, respecting the teaching objectives, take into account individual learning methods and provide suitable compensatory instruments.


    Exam Board

    CRISTINA BOTTINO (President)

    STEFANIA VERNAZZA (President Substitute)



    second semester



    The end-of-course exam aims to assess the achievement of the educational objectives of the course. The exams take place on the dates indicated in the calendar. Verification is oral, in person, conducted by two teachers for each student. The grade is assigned as a weighted average.

    The teachers verify the achievement of the educational objectives by asking diversified questions relating to the programs actually carried out during the lesson hours. When the educational objectives have not been achieved, the student is invited to better verify his knowledge and to take the exam again in its entirety.

    In case of changes in the sanitary and epidemiological situation, the exams will be carried out remotely (TEAMS).

    Examination Committee: Proff. Cristina Bottino, Stefania Vernazza


    Verification of learning takes place only through the final exam which aims to verify the actual acquisition, by the student, of the expected learning outcomes. In order to pass the exam, with a score of not less than 18/30, the student must demonstrate that they know and connect the topics covered during the course

    The following contribute to the final mark expressed out of thirty:

    - Ability to deal with the requested topics in a transversal and critical manner;

    - Correctness, clarity, synthesis and fluidity of presentation;

    - Mastery of the subject;

    - Adoption of appropriate terminology

    The mark of 30/30 with possible honors will be awarded when the knowledge / skills of the subject are excellent.

    Students with SLD or other regularly certified special educational needs will be able to agree on written or oral modalities with the teacher, by contacting the teachers at least 10 days before the exam. They can also take advantage of 30% additional time.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    21/12/2022 14:00 GENOVA Orale Preappello riservato SOLO ed ESCLUSIVAMENTE agli studenti iscritti al 3 e 4 anno. Devono essere rispettate le propedeuticità dell'anno di iscrizione a medicina Gli studenti che non soddisfano i criteri di cui sopra non potranno sostenere l'esame SEDE ESAME: Aula 3 - Edificio 6 - Polo didattico Alberti L'elenco degli studenti con data e ora dell'esame sarà pubblicato sul team delle lezioni
    09/01/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale SEDE ESAME: Auletta patologia generale
    16/01/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale SEDE VESAME: Auletta Patologia Generale, Edificio 7 (ex patologia generale) - piano Terra, via L.B. Alberti 2
    30/01/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale SEDE ESAME: Aula grande di patologia Generale
    06/02/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale SEDE: Biblioteca, Istituto di patologia generale, primo piano NB: gli studenti che non hanno sostenuto gli esami propedeutici NON potranno sostenere l'esame di PATOLOGIA GENERALE IMMUNOLOGIA E LABORATORIO
    20/02/2023 14:00 GENOVA Orale Gli studenti di odontoiatria sosterranno l'esame lunedì, ore 14.30, biblioteca di patologia Per gli studenti di medicina gli esami inizieranno mercoledì 22 febbraio (lettera estratta F). L'elenco degli studenti con data, ora e sede dell'esame è disponibile sul canale teams bw6jvck. Eventuali scambi 1:1 tra gli studenti devono essere comunicati in sede d'esame Nel caso del superamento di prove propedeutiche a fisiopatologia e non ancora registrate in carriera, gli studenti devono presentare una dichiarazione firmata dal docente
    06/04/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale Appello straordinario riservato a studenti IN CORSO CON OBBLIGO DI FREQUENZA iscritti al 3 o 4 anno di medicina SEDE: Aula 5 - Edificio 6 - Polo didattico Alberti ore 9.30 ANTONINI ALESSIO 4683504 API ANNA 4821940 BARBAGELATA BEATRICE 5000733 BONVICINO VALENTINA 5103177 BRAMBILLA FEDERICO 4932480 CARONI JUAN DAVIDE 4825108 COSTA ALESSANDRA 4834799 DE MORO FRANCESCA 4805704 DEL GAUDIO DENISE 5102220 FADDA FEDERICA 5005464 FOTSO KENGNE WILFRIED BORIS 4799742 GHISILIERI JORGE MANUEL 4820169 GRANDIS ALBERTO 4327798 ore 14.30 KHALIFA NORHAN 4371368 MARSANO NICOLÒ 5107137 ORSOLINO VIOLA 5017234 PANINA CHIARA 4815231 PASQUALI SUSANNA 5102451 PIASTRI FRANCESCA 5000744 PIETRAFRACCIA CHIARA EMMA 4822336 PROSERPIO CHIARA 5103111 RISSO VIRGINIA 4943819 RIVA ANNALISA 5109315 SQUERI CAROLA 4624929 TARÌ ALICE 5115277 VEGLIO VALENTINA 5017971 VINCI GIADA 5102439
    16/05/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale Appello riservato a studenti fuoricorso o ripetenti senza obbligo di frequenza SEDE: Auletta Patologia generale
    05/06/2023 14:30 GENOVA Orale SEDE auletta chirurgica ORARIO h 14.30
    13/06/2023 14:00 GENOVA Orale il preappello è riservato UNICAMENTE agli studenti che intendono presentare domanda di tesi il 14 giugno. Gli iscritti dovranno firmare un'auto certificazione che attesta il diritto di partecipare all'appello
    20/06/2023 09:30 GENOVA Orale
    26/06/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    11/07/2023 09:30 GENOVA Orale
    17/07/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    04/09/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    07/09/2023 09:30 GENOVA Orale
    18/09/2023 09:00 GENOVA Orale


    Attendance allows the student to better learn the contents of the course because the teacher provides detailed explanations during the lessons and frames the topics with continuous references to the most current discoveries in the field of the subject. The teaching material is available online (Teams or Aulaweb)