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ENERGY SYSTEMS

CODE 60219
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 6 cfu during the 2nd year of 8784 INGEGNERIA MECCANICA (L-9) - LA SPEZIA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR ING-IND/09
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • LA SPEZIA
  • SEMESTER 2° Semester
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    The course deals with both the theoretical and technological aspects of energy systems and their main components. The focus is mainly on thermo-electric energy conversion plants from fuels or alternative thermal sources. The course explores, also from a technological point of view, the need to provide a national electricity grid with programmable energy sources, which can therefore compensate for the stochastic fluctuations of loads and production from renewable sources.

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Basics of the design and / or construction and / or operation of energy plants are discussed. Starting from the thermodynamics and fluid dynamics applied to energy systems, the following topics are covered: internal combustion engines, steam turbine systems, turbine and gas plants, combined heat and power plants, renewable energy plants.

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    At the end of the course the student will be able to:
    - understand plant layouts of energy systems
    - analyze the performance of energy systems and related turbomachinery
    - critically interpret the measurements coming from energy plants
    - research the main features of technologies for electricity production
    - simulate the performance of a simple internal combustion engine

     

    PREREQUISITES

    Technical Physics

    TEACHING METHODS

    Class lectures and laboratory exercises.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    The course is divided into five modules, which are summarized below.

    A) ELEMENTS OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID DYNAMICS

    Energy requirements, energy sources. Types of machines. Units of measurement. Main thermodynamic diagrams. Open and closed systems; technical meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Ideal transformations and efficiencies. Thermodynamic cycles. Energy equation in thermodynamic and mechanical forms.

    B) RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Mechanical scheme and reference thermodynamic cycles. Four stroke and two stroke engines. Internal combustion engines with compression ignition and spark ignition. Ideal cycle and quasi-ideal cycle. Real cycle. Combustion reaction and dissociation. Carburation and fuel injection. Ideal and real distribution. Elements of supercharging systems.

    C) STEAM PLANT

    Steam cycles and related plants: expression of efficiency; methods to improve the efficiency of the steam cycle; regeneration; the heat balance; general aspects of the circuit; circuits backpressure and cogeneration. How to regulate the power output of steam plants. Components of steam cycles: turbine and channel expansion; the condenser; the degasser; the regenerative heat exchangers; construction types.

    D) PLANTS AND GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLES

    Gas turbine cycles: simple cycle ideal, quasi-ideal and real; performance of the ideal cycle; conditions of maximum useful work; performance of the quai-ideal cycle and the real cycle. The diagram and efficiency and specific work; Main components of the gas turbine; the recuperated cycle; the intercooled cycle; the re-heated cycle. Combined cycles and plant schemes.

    E) A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Hydroelectric plants and pumping systems. Geothermal systems. Solar energy plants. Wind energy plants. Biogas plants, biomass plants, district heating and high efficiency cogeneration.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    ACTON O., CAPUTO C. - (1) Introduzione allo studio delle macchine; (2)  Impianti  motori; (4) Turbomacchine - UTET

    BENSON S. - The Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of ICE - Clarendon Pres

    CLUP A. - Principles of energy conversion - McGraw-Hill

    DIXON S.L. - Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery - Pergamon

    LOZZA G. - Turbine a gas e cicli combinati - Progetto Leonardo

    MORAN, SHAPIRO - Fundamentals of Thermodynamics - J.Wiley

    SANDROLINI S, NALDI G. - Macchine - Pitagora

    STECCO S. - Impianti di conversione energetica - Ed. Pitagora

    TAYLOR C. - The Internal Combustion Engine - MIT 

    VAN WYLEN, SONNTAG - Fundamentals of Thermodynamics - Wiley

    VARDY A. - Fluid Principles - McGraw-Hill

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    DARIA BELLOTTI (President)

    LESSONS

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Oral questions, where all the excercises done in the class should be shown.

    Project, performed at the laboratory computer.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Oral questions.

    Written exercises and final project 

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes

    FURTHER INFORMATION

    The laboratory excercises will be carried out using the software Matlab.