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CODE 80102
  • 9 cfu during the 3nd year of 8719 INGEGNERIA INFORMATICA (L-8) - GENOVA
    LANGUAGE Italian
  • SEMESTER Annual


    The course addresses the analysis of single input - single output (SISO) linear time invariant (LTI), continuous time, dynamical systems and the synthesis of their controllers. Systems will be modeled by transfer functions either derived from first principles or experimentally.



    The course aims at delivering the basic conceptual and methodological tools to deal with the analysis and control synthesis for dynamic systems.


    Knowledge and understanding issues: Provide adequate knowledge in order to understand the role of control systems for linear time invariant SISO (single input - single output) systems. In particular, the expected learning outcomes are related to the understanding of open and closed loop control architectures and their performances. Central are the concepts of stability of SISO dynamic systems, robustness to model uncertainties and exogenous disturbances.

    As for the ability to apply knowledge and understanding, at the end of the course the student is expected to have acquired knowledge to:

    Model simple dynamical systems, deducing their representation in terms of interconnection of transfer functions.

    Use block algebra to deduce the transfer functions of interest for control purposes, also evaluating all the aspects that characterize them (order, poles / zeros, open loop stability properties, etc.).

    Carry out frequency analysis of transfer functions by tracing their Bode and polar diagrams.

    Carry out closed loop stability analysis of control systems using all the methods developed (both in the frequency and time domains), checking the consistency between them.

    Evaluate the properties of an assigned control system (reduction / cancellation of steady state errors in response to polynomial and sinusoidal signals, evaluation of dynamic behaviors, dominant poles, bandwith, etc.)

    Assess the compatibility of the assigned control specifications with the characteristics of the given system. In case of incompatibility, knowing how to reformulate new specifications compatible with the system and the assigned boundary conditions.

    Synthesize a regulator for a given system, capable of meeting the specifications of dynamic and steady-state behavior.

    As for judgment autonomy and communication skills: judgment autonomy will have to be demonstrated through the knowledge of the concepts and methods described in the course including the generalization of what is illustrated in the course to any other arbitrary SISO linear time invariant system.

    Learning skills: the learning ability will be measured (qualitatively) during lessons, student receptions, and exercises that will be based on the maximum possible active participation. The final learning ability will be assessed globally and quantitatively during through the final exam.


    Knowledge of the general concepts and methodological tools developed in the "Teoria dei Sistemi" (Systems Theory) course.


    • Frontal lectures (theory and exercises developed on the blackboard);
    • Availability of course lecture notes;
    • Written learning tests during the year;
    • Class exercises;
    • Illustration of the use of existing SW tools for the analysis and synthesis of control systems.


    Part 1: introduction to Automatic Controls: general concepts related to open and closed loop control schemes. Introduction to the concept of robustness to exogenous disturbances and parametric uncertainties. Practical examples of plant modeling and their control architectures.

    Part 2: introduction to minimal and non-minimal phase systems including systems with finite delays.

    Part 3: closed loop stability analysis methods: Routh-Hurwitz method; Root Locus method; Nyquist method; phase and gain margin methods; slope method (or Bode qualitative method) generalized to the case of unstable and / or non-minimum phase systems.

    Part 4: analysis of the performance, both in the time and frequency domains, of closed loop control systems in steady and transient conditions. Methods of approximate evaluation of transfer functions in closed loop.

    Part 5: synthesis of regulators: specifications of a control system; general synthesis methods for minimal phase plants; phase lag and lead regulators, and proportional, integral and derivative (PID) regulator; general synthesis methods for unstable and/or non-minimal phase plants.

    Part 6: introduction to the discretisation of continuous time regulators for their digital implementation.


    Course notes will be made available by instructors and are to be considered the main course material. As for additional references on specific topics, students should consider the following: 

    • G. Marrro: “Controlli Automatici”, Zanichelli, 1997
    • P. Bolzern, R. Scattolini, N. Schiavoni: “Fondamenti di Controlli Automatici”, McGraw Hill, 1998
    • Karl J. Åström and Richard M. Murray: "Feedback Systems: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers", Princeton University Press, 2019 ( )



    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.



    From one to three written tests (not mandatory) for the partial assessment of learning during the course.

    Final colloquium (compulsory). In case of not passing the partial assessment tests during the course, the candidate must autonomously carry out one or more exercises before the colloquium.

    Students with learning disorders ("disturbi specifici di apprendimento", DSA) will be allowed to use specific modalities and supports that will be determined on a case-by-case basis in agreement with the delegate of the Engineering courses in the Committee for the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities.


    The results of the intermediate learning tests, if passed, will constitute the starting point for the final vote, following an additional colloquium integrating the partial assessment tests.

    In case of not passing the partial assessment tests during the course, the compulsory final colloquium will cover the entire course program and it will be preceded by a written exercise.