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MOD. 2 BIOCHEMISTRY

CODE 80587
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 4 cfu during the 1st year of 11159 BIOENGINEERING(LM-21) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/10
    LANGUAGE English
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 2° Semester
    MODULES This unit is a module of:
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Uno degli sbocchi professionali dei laureati in Bioingegneria è la ideazione/implementazione di strumenti di analisi di metaboliti, come possibili marcatori di patologie. L’obiettivo generale del modulo di Biochemistry è quello di fornire concetti di biochimica e biochimica clinica per comprendere il significato dei dosaggi di metaboliti, come indicatori del (dis)metabolismo, e di acquisire un linguaggio che permetta al Bioingegnere di interfacciarsi con medici/biotecnologi nell’ideazione/implementazioni di apparecchiature per diagnosi o ricerca biomedica. Gli obiettivi specifici comprendono: 1. Riconoscere e descrivere le principali biomolecole (lipidi, proteine, carboidrati, nucleotidi); 2. Comprendere e discutere il ruolo della regolazione enzimatica (anche tramite conoscenze di segnalazione e cinetica) nelle diverse vie metaboliche; 3. Distinguere le principali vie anaboliche e cataboliche, sapendole collegare tra di loro nelle diverse situazioni metaboliche o dismetaboliche, con un fuoco sulla integrazione (dis)funzionale tra i diversi organi umani

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Students will learn to recognize, write and describe the structure of the main biomolecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotides). In addition, they will be able to distinguish the main anabolic and catabolic pathways, connecting them in the different metabolic conditions. They should be able to understand and discuss the role of enzymatic regulation (also with knowledge of Kinetics and thermodynamic) in the different metabolic pathways.  Students should be able to correlate the signaling pathways activating different metabolic response in different organs, with a focus on the (dys)functional integration between different human organs.

    TEACHING METHODS

    Frontal Teaching. Seminars. Examples of the use of elementary biomedical databases to search information.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

     

    • Structure, properties and functions of aminoacids and proteins.
    • Enzymology. Enzymatic kinetics. Michaelis-Menten's equation. Enzyme inhibition. Allosteric enzymes. Properties and classification of enzymes. Vitamins as coenzymes.
    • Proteins that bind and transport oxygen; myoglobin and hemoglobin: structural properties and saturation curves. Cooperativeness.
    • Principles of bioenergetics and biosignalling.
    • Role of ATP and other phosphorous compounds. General principles of metabolism, catabolism, anabolism.
    • Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and regulation. Ketone bodies. Glycogen synthesis, glycogen lysis and their reciprocal regulation in muscle and liver. Pentose phosphate pathway: oxidative and non-oxidative phase, metabolic meaning and regulation. Glutathione. Clinical tests for glucose metabolism.
    • The citric acid cycle. Pyruvate in mitochondria. Pyruvate dehydrogenase. AcetilCoA. Cycle regulation.
    • Oxidative phosphorylation. Flow of electrons on respiratory chain complexes. Structures and functions of cofactors involved in the transport of electrons. Proton gradient formation. Chemiosmotic coupling. ATP synthase. Structure and function. Coupling of ATP synthesis with the proton gradient and oxygen consumption.
    • Lipid metabolism. Lipases and regulation of the metabolism of triacylglycerol. Fatty acids: activation, transport mechanism, β-oxidation. Regulation. Energy yield for palmitate oxidation. Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol. Clinical tests for lipid metabolism.
    • Protein catabolism. Transamination and deamination of glutamate. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids. Urea cycle and its regulation. Clinical tests for protein metabolism.
    • Metabolic correlations between organs.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    “Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry”, David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox. Ed. Zanichelli.

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    SANTINA BRUZZONE (President)

    GIANLUCA DAMONTE

    ELISABETTA FINOCCHIO (President Substitute)

    GIANGUIDO RAMIS (Substitute)

    LESSONS

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Oral examination, approximately 15-20 minutes.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    The level of aim achievements will be verified with a discussion by the student, that will start from a given subject on a specific metabolic pathway, from which connections to other metabolic pathways, regulation systems and/or correlation among different organs will be developed.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes