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CODE 87010
ACADEMIC YEAR 2023/2024
CREDITS
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR FIS/01
TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
SEMESTER 1° Semester
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

the course presents the fundamental concepts relating to the physics and technology of superconducting magnets, illustrating their main fields of application

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course provides the knowledge of the physical processes that underlie the functioning of superconducting magnets and manufacturing technologies. Provides the fundamental skills, conceptual and practical, for design, with particular regard to magnets for particle physics (magnets for accelerators and for detectors).

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Students will learn the fundamental concepts for understanding the functioning of superconducting magnets: cryogenics, superconducting dynamic regimes, flux pinning, critical current density, concepts of adiabatic and cryogenic stability, dissipative effects, quench. They will learn which superconducting materials are used in applications and their properties. They will learn to solve complex magnetostatic problems even in the presence of ferromagnetic materials. They will learn the problems of mechanics associated with superconducting magnets (thermal contractions, Lorentz forces) and the basics of design. They will be introduced to the use of computational tools for solving multiphysics problems (electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical). They will have an overview of the main magnetic configurations used (solenoids, toroids, multipolar magnets) and will learn the concepts and methods for their design and implementation.

TEACHING METHODS

Combination of traditional lectures, tutorial for finite element computation and a visit to an industry involved in superconducting magnet development.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Introduction to the course - Applications of superconducting magnets 1h
Cryogenic elements 5h
Background
Cryogenic fluids
Thermodynamics (review of some concepts)
Heat transmission and thermal loads
Dewar and Cryostats
Effects of low temperatures on material properties
Cooling with cryogenic liquids
Liquefiers and cryogenerators
Superconducting wires and cables 8h
Flows and dynamic regimes
Critical current
Experimental methods for measuring the critical current (volt-amperometric method, inductive method, magnetization measurements)
Flux jump
Composite superconductors: superconducting wires
Materials (NbTi, A15, MgB2, HTS)
Dissipations in variable regime 2h
Critical state model
Hysteretic losses
Losses for inter-filament couplings
Losses for inter-strand coupling
6h superconducting magnets
Spectrum of disturbances
Adiabatic stability
Cryogenic stability
Degradation and training
Accelerators and particle detectors 2h
Magnets: power supply, persistent regime, quench and 4h protection
Current distribution and magnetic fields 6h
Solenoids
Toroids
Dipoles, quadrupoles and multipoles
Canted Cosϑ magnets (CCT)
Introduction to finite element analysis 2h
Lorentz forces and mechanics associated with 8h magnets
Stress and strain diagrams
Stress tensor and derivation of the main stresses
Generalized Hooke's law, treatment for isotropic means
Yield criteria
Causes of stress in magnets: differential thermal contractions and Lorentz forces
Mechanical structure in the solenoids
Mechanical structure in dipoles and quadrupoles
The preload principle
Design examples of magnets made 4h
The solenoid of the CMS experiment at CERN
The D2 dipole for High Luminosity LHC
The quadrupole prototype for SuperB

 

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) M.N. Wilson  Superconducting Magnets Clarendon Press Publication
2) Y.Iwasa Case Studies in Superconducting Magnets  Springer Science & Business Media, 1994
3) E Wilson An introduction to Particle Accelerators Oxford University press
4) J.P.A. Bastos , N Sadowski Electromagnetic Modeling by Finite Element Methods Marcel Dekker Inc

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Exam Board

RICCARDO MUSENICH (President)

MARINA PUTTI

STEFANIA FARINON (President Substitute)

LESSONS

LESSONS START

First semester

Class schedule

L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

Oral exam with dissertation on a specific topic agreed with the teachers plus a question on a topic covered in the course.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Dissertation on a specific subject agreed with the Lecturer complemented with an oral exam, including a presentation of the study reported in the dissertation (Weight 50%). Questions about the performed study are asked  during presentation (Weight 25%).  Finally the student is asked to answer one question about a topic of the course program (Weight 25%).

Through the oral examination, the commission is able to assess the degree of knowledge of the subjects exposed, the clarity and the ability to summarize of the student.

Exam schedule

Data Ora Luogo Degree type Note
16/02/2024 09:00 GENOVA Esame su appuntamento
30/07/2024 09:00 GENOVA Esame su appuntamento
20/09/2024 09:00 GENOVA Esame su appuntamento

FURTHER INFORMATION

Although the lectures will be delivered in Italian, the Lecturer can provide a comprehensive collection of teaching materials in English to prepare for the final exam, and this exam can be taken in English