|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||ING-IND/08|
The unit deals with the most relevant topics related to machines and energy systems applied in the transport and logistics sector, analyzing their working principles, operating and technical issues and the relevant environmental impact.
The module aims at providing the knowledge on the main types of machines, with reference to those used in transport and logistic systems, as well as on energy systems and their environmental impact. The main objectives are: to provide an adequate and critical knowledge on the main design and operating aspects of internal combustion engines and gas turbines power plants. To analyse combustion processes and pollutant emissions formation, including the relevant technologies for their control. To define criteria for the comparison of propulsion systems based on conventional and alternative (electric, hybrid and fuel cell) technologies.
At the end of the unit, the student is expected to be able to:
Basic thermodynamic and fluid dynamics knowledge.
40 hours of lectures, 5 hours of numerical practices.
Primary energy sources and their transformations - Energy consumption worldwide and in Italy - Energy, transport and environment indicators.
Fundamentals for the study of machines and energy systems
Fluid machines classification – Work exchange in volumetric machines and turbomachines – Conversion efficiency in fluid machines – Thermodynamic cycles - Thermal power plants overall efficiency - Specific fuel consumption.
Combustion processes and pollutant emissions formation
Conventional and alternative fuels and their specifications – Air-fuel ratio and lower heating value – Combustion processes: general aspects and classifications, premixed and diffusion flames – Pollutants formation processes and their effect on health and environment.
Internal Combustion Engines (ICE)
ICE classification, engine components, nomenclature, operational parameters – Ideal and real operation of 2 and 4 stroke engines – Reference thermodynamic cycles for SI and diesel engines – Engine power correlations – Combustion processes in ICE – Engine performance maps – Supercharging and turbocharging – ICE pollutant emissions control.
Positive displacement compressors and pumps
Reciprocating and rotary displacement compressors: operating principle, constructive characteristics, ideal and real working cycle, flow rate control systems – Volumetric pumps: alternative and rotary machines, working principle, construction types – Characteristic curves – Fluid machine-circuit matching.
Gas turbine power plants
General aspects, open and closed circuit plants – Gas cycles: ideal and fuel-air and real cycle – Maximum efficiency and specific work condition – Gas turbine power plants for aeronautical and industrial application – Gas turbine power plant components: compressor, combustion chamber, expander.
Environmental aspects of power generation
Chemical, thermal and noise pollution – Emissions and environment: main air quality issues – Environmental impact of gas turbine and internal combustion engines – Emission control systems and after-treatment devices.
Electric and hybrid propulsion
General overview of electric and hybrid propulsion systems - Hybrid propulsion: hybrid system configurations, hybrid categories (start-&-stop, micro, mild, full hybrid systems) – Electric propulsion: advantages/disadvantages, performance, operating range, costs.
Calculation of energy systems operating parameters.
This unit contributes to the achievement of the following Sustainable Development Goals of the UN 2030 Agenda: Objectives 7 (Clean and Affordable Energy) and 13 (Fighting climate change).
Detailed notes on the different topics discussed in lectures will be provided by the teacher through the Aulaweb page. Therefore, all registered students will access documents to prepare the exam. It is recommended to attend the lectures.
Y. Demirel – Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation and Coupling – 2nd Edition, Springer, 2016.
S.L. Dixon – Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery – 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998.
B. Miller – Fossil fuel emissions control technologies – Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015.
GIORGIO ZAMBONI (President)
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
Examination is based on an oral test, proposing two questions, selecting their subject among the unit topics.
Students with learning disorders ("Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento", DSA) will be allowed to use specific modalities and supports that will be determined on a case-by-case basis in agreement with the delegate of the Engineering courses in the Committee for the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities.
The following aspects will be evaluated: