CODE 60219 ACADEMIC YEAR 2023/2024 CREDITS 6 cfu anno 2 INGEGNERIA MECCANICA 8784 (L-9) - LA SPEZIA SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR ING-IND/09 LANGUAGE Italian TEACHING LOCATION LA SPEZIA SEMESTER 2° Semester TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB OVERVIEW The course deals with both the theoretical and technological aspects of energy systems and their main components. The focus is mainly on thermo-electric energy conversion plants from fuels or alternative thermal sources. The course explores, also from a technological point of view, the need to provide a national electricity grid with programmable energy sources, which can therefore compensate for the stochastic fluctuations of loads and production from renewable sources. AIMS AND CONTENT LEARNING OUTCOMES Basics of the design and / or construction and / or operation of energy plants are discussed. Starting from the thermodynamics and fluid dynamics applied to energy systems, the following topics are covered: internal combustion engines, steam turbine systems, turbine and gas plants, combined heat and power plants, renewable energy plants. AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the course the student will be able to: - understand plant layouts of energy systems - analyze the performance of energy systems and related turbomachinery - critically interpret the measurements coming from energy plants - research the main features of technologies for electricity production - simulate the performance of a simple internal combustion engine PREREQUISITES Technical Physics TEACHING METHODS Class lectures and laboratory exercises. SYLLABUS/CONTENT The course is divided into five modules, which are summarized below. A) ELEMENTS OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID DYNAMICS Energy requirements, energy sources. Types of machines. Units of measurement. Main thermodynamic diagrams. Open and closed systems; technical meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Ideal transformations and efficiencies. Thermodynamic cycles. Energy equation in thermodynamic and mechanical forms. B) RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Mechanical scheme and reference thermodynamic cycles. Four stroke and two stroke engines. Internal combustion engines with compression ignition and spark ignition. Ideal cycle and quasi-ideal cycle. Real cycle. Combustion reaction and dissociation. Carburation and fuel injection. Ideal and real distribution. Elements of supercharging systems. C) STEAM PLANT Steam cycles and related plants: expression of efficiency; methods to improve the efficiency of the steam cycle; regeneration; the heat balance; general aspects of the circuit; circuits backpressure and cogeneration. How to regulate the power output of steam plants. Components of steam cycles: turbine and channel expansion; the condenser; the degasser; the regenerative heat exchangers; construction types. D) PLANTS AND GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLES Gas turbine cycles: simple cycle ideal, quasi-ideal and real; performance of the ideal cycle; conditions of maximum useful work; performance of the quai-ideal cycle and the real cycle. The diagram and efficiency and specific work; Main components of the gas turbine; the recuperated cycle; the intercooled cycle; the re-heated cycle. Combined cycles and plant schemes. E) A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS Hydroelectric plants and pumping systems. Geothermal systems. Solar energy plants. Wind energy plants. Biogas plants, biomass plants, district heating and high efficiency cogeneration. RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY ACTON O., CAPUTO C. - (1) Introduzione allo studio delle macchine; (2) Impianti motori; (4) Turbomacchine - UTET BENSON S. - The Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of ICE - Clarendon Pres CLUP A. - Principles of energy conversion - McGraw-Hill DIXON S.L. - Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery - Pergamon LOZZA G. - Turbine a gas e cicli combinati - Progetto Leonardo MORAN, SHAPIRO - Fundamentals of Thermodynamics - J.Wiley SANDROLINI S, NALDI G. - Macchine - Pitagora STECCO S. - Impianti di conversione energetica - Ed. Pitagora TAYLOR C. - The Internal Combustion Engine - MIT VAN WYLEN, SONNTAG - Fundamentals of Thermodynamics - Wiley VARDY A. - Fluid Principles - McGraw-Hill TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD DARIA BELLOTTI Exam Board DARIA BELLOTTI (President) LESSONS LESSONS START https://corsi.unige.it/8784/p/studenti-orario Class schedule L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy. EXAMS EXAM DESCRIPTION Oral questions, where all the excercises done in the class should be shown. Project, performed at the laboratory computer. ASSESSMENT METHODS Oral questions. Written exercises and final project Exam schedule Data Ora Luogo Degree type Note 12/01/2024 09:30 LA SPEZIA Orale 09/02/2024 09:30 LA SPEZIA Orale 05/06/2024 09:30 LA SPEZIA Orale 03/07/2024 09:30 LA SPEZIA Orale 28/08/2024 09:30 LA SPEZIA Orale FURTHER INFORMATION The laboratory excercises will be carried out using the software Matlab.