|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
The course aims to provide a phenomenological derivation of the Standard Cosmological Model, using critical observations and concepts from classical and modern physics. The goal is to provide students with a solid foundation for understanding the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe and to pursue a career in space physics. The course also offers a general knowledge of cosmological phenomena and methods, suitable for students interested in other areas of physics as well.
AIMS AND CONTENT
The course aims to discuss the main observations that have led to the formulation of the Standard Cosmological Model, emphasizing their critical aspects and their impact on particle physics and theories of gravity.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
During the course, students will develop knowledge regarding the most relevant astronomical observations for cosmology. These include the surface brightness of the night sky, the recession velocity of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background and its anisotropies, gamma-ray background, optical spectra of distant quasars, the 21 cm radiation, X-ray emission from galaxy clusters, Type Ia supernovae, the spatial distribution of galaxies in the cosmos, their peculiar velocities, and various manifestations of gravitational lensing.
In parallel, students will acquire the necessary concepts that, when combined into a coherent framework, will allow them to develop the Standard Cosmological Model. This includes Friedmann's equations, equations of state for fluids, energy and curvature, cosmological redshift, Universe models, the Big Bang theory, dark matter, the cosmological constant, thermal history, equivalence, decoupling, recombination, reionization, cosmological nucleosynthesis, cosmic inflation, gravitational instability, statistical analysis tools for large-scale structure, and galaxy bias.
At the end of the course, the developed concepts will be used to discuss a recent publication on one of the cutting-edge research topics in cosmology.
There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, we warmly suggest to have attended the course "Intriduction to Astrophysics and Cosmology" during the Laurea Triennale.
Lectures will be conducted in a frontal format, using slides and ancillary materials provided through AulaWeb.
- Olbers' paradox and the geometry of space-time.
- Hubble's law and the homogeneity of the universe. Cosmic microwave background and isotropy.
- Cosmological principle and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric.
- Cosmological redshift and the resolution of Olbers' paradox.
- Friedmann equations, fluid equation, and epochs of equivalence.
- Cosmological models: flat, curved, and the concept of the Big Bang.
- Cosmological constant and dark matter.
- Cosmological paradoxes and inflation.
- Primordial nucleosynthesis and recombination.
- Gravitational instability and perturbative theory.
- Evolution of cosmic structures.
- Statistics of matter density field in the universe and power spectrum.
- Anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation.
- Spatial distribution of galaxies.
- Gravitational lenses: micro-lensing, strong lensing, and weak lensing.
Lezioni frontali con utilizzo di slide e materiale fornito tramite AulaWeb.
- P. Coles, F. Lucchin. Cosmology. Wiley.
- S. Carroll. Spacetime and Geometry. Cambridge University Press.
- M. Longair. Galaxy Evolution. Springer.
- Liddle. An Introduction to cosmological inflation:https://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9901124.pdf
- E. Kolb, M. Turner. The Early Universe. CRC Press.
- M. Tegmark. “Doppler peaks and all that….” https://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9511148.pdf
- M. Roos. Dark Matter: The evidence from astronomy,
astrophysics and cosmology. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1001.0316.pdf
- R. Narayan, M. Bartelmann. Lectures on Gravitational Lensing. https://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9606001.pdf
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
Ricevimento: During and after the course: free (S805 al DIFI) by prior appointment via email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ENZO FRANCO BRANCHINI (President)
SILVANO TOSI (President Substitute)
L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.
Standard oral exam on the blackboard. Questions on two topics indicated by the candidate.
The exam consists of an oral test that includes questions from the committee on two topics chosen by the students. On average, the exam lasts about 40 minutes per student. The questions aim to assess the level of knowledge and mastery of the topics developed by the students, as well as the clarity of exposition and the appropriate use of language in the discipline, in order to determine the final evaluation.
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