|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
The Course Physical Chemistry is focused on thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. It completes the basic chemical-physical knowledge of materials science students, allowing to approach to the investigation of complex chemical and biochemical systems.
AIMS AND CONTENT
Acquire methodological rigor and mathematical formalism to interpret and describe the fundamental phenomena that underlie the chemical-physical systems. Particular attention will be paid to the description and understanding of the energy profile of chemical systems as well as to the physical-chemical phenomena as a function of time.
Background in Mathematics, General Physics and General Chemistry is recommended.
Theoretical lectures (48 hours), Classroom attendance is strongly recommended.
Definition of thermodynamic system. Ideal and real gases. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. First law of thermodynamics: heat, work. State functions: definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Phases and aggregation states. Reaction enthalpy. Hess' law, Kirhhoff's law. Second law of thermodynamics. Definition of entropy (S) according both to classical and statistical thermodynamics. Gibbs and Helmoltz free energies. Dependence of G on temperature and on pressure. One-component phase diagrams: the phase rule. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Ideal and real solutions: partial molar quantities; Raoult's law; Henry's law; excess functions; activity. Colligative properties. Electrolyte solutions: ion activity and Debye-Hueckel law; salting in and salting out. Kohlrausch law and independent ion migration law. Ionic mobility. Chemical equilibrium: Gibbs energy of a reaction; dependence of the reaction delta G on the composition: reaction quotient and equilibrium constant. Applications of G to complex chemical systems.
CHEMICAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
Concepts of rate and order of reaction. Molecularity and mechanism of reactions, half-life. Reactions in series and in parallel; reversible reactions. Kinetic analysis of experimental data and determination of the kinetic law: integral methods and differential methods. Dependence of the reaction rate on the temperature (Arrhenius equation). Kinetics and equilibrium. Pre-equilibrium conditions. Approximation of the steady state. Kinetic and thermodynamic control of reactions. Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism. Reactions in solution, reactions controlled by diffusion. Isotope effect. Theory of chemical reactions (collision theory and transition state theory). Kinetics of Complex Reactions. Catalysis and catalysts. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Enzymatic catalysis. Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
P.Atkins - J de Paola Chimica Fisica- 2012 (quinta edizione) Zanichelli Bologna
Laidler -Meiser Chimica Fisica 1999 Editoriale Grasso Bologna
E.L.Cussler Diffusion 1997 Cambridge University Press -USA
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
Ricevimento: For any problem / information regarding the course, students can contact the professor at any time by e-mail in order to make an appointment
MARCELLA PANI (President)
DAVIDE PEDDIS (President)
MASSIMO DOMENICO OTTONELLI
October 2, 2023
The examination exam consists of
- Oral interview will cover both theoretical aspects of the course and the solution of simple exercises/problems. The students must demonstrate understanding of main chemical-physical concepts and must show good familiarity with the mathematical derivations discussed during the lectures.
- Preparation of a short presentation (also with ppt support) on a topic related to the course content, agreed in advance.
The oral exam is conducted by two professors and has a minimum duration of 45 minutes.
In addition to the student's ability to present a topic in a general context, the reasoning skills and capability to answer specific questions are assessed. Passing the exam presupposes the effective acquisition of the theoretical concepts; in particular, students must demonstrate to have correctly understood the meaning of certain physical and/or chemical-physical laws and to give the correct interpretation of the reasons why certain phenomena occur. The student's ability to apply theoretical knowledge in real situations or for solving simple problems is also positively evaluated.
Preparing a small presentation on a chosen topic allows to evaluate the students ability to synthesize and rationalize concepts.