|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
Propedeuticità in uscita
The students attending this class are supposed to learn the main notions of chemistry studying those chemical processes involved il the biological systems at a molecular level. For this reason these basics are usually combined with examples from biological chemistry in order to facilitate the incoming study of biochemistry, physiology, pathology and so on.
AIMS AND CONTENT
To provide fundamental information on basic chemistry thus giving important tools to understand the mechanisms underlying biochemical reactions
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
To understand the formation of strong and weak bonds that are formed between atoms/molecules as a function of the chemical features of the elements involved. To know the chemistry and physics of water for understanding why it is the most important biological solvent. To learn the significance of pH and buffer solutions also from a quantitative point of view. To understand why the 3D structure of a given molecule is determined by both strong and weak bonds, and its exposed groups are important for reactivity in biological conditions. To learn the basic thermodynamic/energetic and kinetics principles for their application in biochemistry. To understand how the energy exchange underlying all the chemical and biochemical reactions is involved in the processing of biomolecules and in the preservation of living organisms.
Teacher-led lessons are delivered to stimulate when possible, the interaction teacher-students on the notions just exposed, by resolving examples/exercises both in class and at home. These exercises are aimed to improve the student's sequential learning. The students have to pass an oral examination.
Lessons, depending on the indications given by the School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, will be held either in presence or online. In this second case, lessons will be synchronous and recorded.
General chemistry: atoms, quantum numbers, electron configuration, Periodic table and recurring chemical properties. Strong and weak bonds. Water. measure of atomic and molecular weight, definition of mole. Methods of measurement of solute concentration in a solution. Acids and bases and how acid-base chemistry is related to chemical equilibrium, Ionic product of water, pH definition and calculation, buffer solutions. Colligative properties, osmosis and osmolarity. Basic concepts of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. Free Gibbs energy and coupled reactions. ATP and biological systems. Organic chemistry: carbon hybridization, chirality and other types of isomers. How to calculate the oxidation number of an atom. Hydrocarbons, benzene, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and their derivatives: primary chemical reactions including examples concerning important biological molecules (esters, thioesters, acid anhydrides, amides, hemiacetals, acetals). Peptide bond. Resonance structures, keto-enol and enamine-imine tautomerism, aldol condensation and important biochemical examples. Structure of important carbohydrates in living organisms (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccarides: starch, cellulose, glycogen). Organic acids and lipids occurring in biological structures (dicarboxylic acids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, (omega-3, omega-6 nomenclature), phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipds, cholesterol, eicosanoids). Amino acids: properties of the different sidechains, ionization state, isoelectric point. Proteins and four levels tridimensional structure. Basic notions of nucleic acids structure.
As a general rule students can use any university-level text of general and organic chemistry not necessarily in italian language. A list of suggested books in italian language is reported below:
General Chemistry: "Chimica" di J.E. Brody e J.R. Holum ed. Zanichelli
Organic Chemistry: "Chimica organica" di Hart H et al. ed Zanichelli
Chemistry and propaedeutic biochemistry:" Chimica e propedeutica biochimica" Bettelheim F.A. et al ed. EdiSES
Concerning the module of Propaedeutic Biochemistry, usually texts of organic chemistry contain parts specifically dedicated to preliminary notions of biochemistry. The students attending this course can also refer to the files of the lessons published on Aulaweb. If lessons will be provided online, then the attending students will have the possibility to download the recorded lessons.
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
Ricevimento: Students can meet the teacher by booking individual appointments. The teacher can be contacted either by e-mail or telephone. e-mail: email@example.com phone: 010 3538160 If it is not possible to meet "in presence", the students will be helped online through interactive meetings.
ROBERTA DE TULLIO (President)
L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.
Oral examination including also brief written exercises and examples of organic molecules having biological interest.
The oral examination has a duration of 20-30 minutes and consists generally of three main questions. The first one concerns general chemistry, the second organic chemistry and the third one propaedeutic biochemistry