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CODE 25727
ACADEMIC YEAR 2024/2025
CREDITS
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/10
LANGUAGE Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
SEMESTER 1° Semester
PREREQUISITES
Propedeuticità in ingresso
Per sostenere l'esame di questo insegnamento è necessario aver sostenuto i seguenti esami:
Propedeuticità in uscita
Questo insegnamento è propedeutico per gli insegnamenti:
  • Molecular and health biology 9015 (coorte 2022/2023)
  • CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 80678
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

The teaching takes into consideration the general principles of Biological Chemistry with particular reference to aspects related to cellular metabolism

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The teaching of biological chemistry aims to provide students with the fundamental knowledge to understand the relationships between the structures of biomolecules and their functions in the human body. In particular, the teaching focuses on chemical transformations and molecular interactions of biomolecules, which are essential for understanding the vital processes of cells and organisms, with particular reference to metabolic processes and their regulation mechanisms.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Acquisition of basic knowledge on the structure and function of proteins with particular attention to those with enzymatic activity. Use of this knowledge for learning, at the molecular level, of the biochemistry of the main catabolic and anabolic processes. Participation in the training activity (lectures) will allow the students to acquire the knowledge necessary to understand the mechanisms related to cellular metabolism.The students must also acquire a correct terminology, on the main aspects of biological chemistry, in line with the methods of verification of learning.

PREREQUISITES

In order to effectively address the contents of the teaching , the following basic knowledge is required: 1) general structures of biomolecules 2) general principles of organic chemistry

TEACHING METHODS

 

The lessons take place in the first semester through lectures that make use of slide projections.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

• INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY

Compartmentalization and cellular transport.

• ENZYMES

Enzymes and their properties. Enzymatic kinetics. Enzymatic inhibition.

• AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS

General properties of a standard amino acid. Peptide bond and its geometric isomerism. Definition of polypeptide and protein. Protein structures. Structure of the heme group. Carbon monoxide and oxygen binding properties of myoglobin and hemoglobin and their structure. Role of pH and 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate.

• COENZYMES AND VITAMINS

Vitamins and Coenzymes. Pyridine coenzymes NAD and NADP: oxide / reductive inter-conversions with hydride ion transfer mechanism.

• METABOLISM

General concepts (anabolism and catabolism) Energy molecules (ATP and reduced coenzymes). Energy production strategies.

• GLUCOSE AND GLYCOLYSIS

Glucose transport. Transporters (GLUT). Scheme of glycolysis and enzymes involved. Exokinase and glucokinase.PFK1.Pyruvate kinase. Glycolysis regulation. Anareobic glycolysis. Alcoholic fermentation.

• GLUCONEOGENESIS

Gluconeogenesis substrates. Gluconeogenesis scheme. Adjustment

• GLYCOGEN

Structure of glycogen. Muscle and hepatic glycogen. Synthesis and demolition. Hormonal regulation (insulin and glucagon). Protein kinase and phosphatase.

• VIA PENTOSE PHOSPHATE

Oxidative and non-oxidative phase. NADPH. Glutathione. Glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Control of the pentose pathway. Decarboxylating malate dehydrogenase (malic enzyme)

• KREBS CYCLE

Pyruvate oxidative decarboxylation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its regulation. Krebs cycle and its regulation. Energy Performance. Anaplerotic reactions.

• LIPIDS

Structure of triglycerides and fatty acids. Digestion and absorption. Lipase and its activation. Carnitine. Oxidation of saturated fatty acids, with odd carbon numbers and mono unsaturated. Energy balance. Adjustment. Chetonic bodies. Saturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Adjustment. Lipoproteins.

• OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORILATION

Mitochondria. Reducing equivalents and their production. Respiratory chain. Respiratory complexes. Coenzyme Q and cytochromes. Redox potentials. Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory. ATP-asi and ATP production. Oxidative phosphorylation yield. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Shuttle systems for the transport of NADH cytosol / mitochondria. (glycerophosphate, malate-aspartate). Translocation

• NITROGEN METABOLISM

Amino acids and their degradation. Digestive enzymes. Transamination reactions. Transaminase mechanism of action. Deammination of glutamate. Glutamine and glutamine synthetase. Muscle-liver alanine cycle (alanine-glucose). Urea cycle. Interaction of urea and Krebs cycles.

• ENERGY METABOLISM: INTEGRATION AND REGULATION

Metabolic specialization of the organs. Hormones and hormonal regulation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Principi di Biochimica - Garrett, Grisham - Editore: Piccin

I principi di biochimica di Lehninger - Nelson, Cox - Editore: Zanichelli

Biochimica - Stryer, Timoczcko, Berg - Editore: Zanichelli

Biochimica - Campbell, Farrell - Editore: EdiSES

Fondamenti di Biochimica - Voet, Voet, Pratt - Editore: Zanichelli

Fondamenti di Biochimica- L Pollegioni-  Editore EDISES

AulaWeb materials and slides

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

LESSONS

LESSONS START

From September 23, 2024

 

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

The exam consists of an oral test and is conducted by the professor in charge of the teaching.The oral examination consists of the answer to questions asked by the teacher on topics covered during the course.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

Assessment of knowledge of: protein structure, enzymology, proteins that bind and transport oxygen, glucose, lipid and protein metabolism, structural formulas of the molecules involved in catabolic and anabolic processes.

This assessment will be verified by means of questions aimed at assessing whether the students have understood the topics of the teaching. Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of detail required for each topic will be provided at the beginning of the course and reiterated during lectures .The students must be able to integrate the knowledge acquired during the lectures The oral examination will focus mainly on the topics covered during the lectures and will have the purpose of assessing the achievement of the appropriate level of knowledge, the ability to use the theoretical notions. The ability to expose the arguments clearly and with correct terminology will also be evaluated.

 

 

FURTHER INFORMATION

Regular attendance at lectures is strongly recommended

Students who have valid certification of physical or learning disabilities on file with the University and who wish to discuss possible accommodations or other circumstances regarding lectures, coursework and exams, should speak both with the instructor and with Professor Sergio Di Domizio (sergio.didomizio@unige.it), the Department’s disability liaison.

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