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CODE 64192
ACADEMIC YEAR 2024/2025
CREDITS
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR MED/04
LANGUAGE Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
SEMESTER 1° Semester
PREREQUISITES
Propedeuticità in ingresso
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TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

The teaching of General Pathology studies the concept of health and disease, the causes of diseases, the cellular pathology, the neoplasms and the defense responses of the human being.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims to enable the student to know the etiological basis and the pathogenic mechanisms of the diseases in humans. The course is divided into several parts including: Etiology and pathogenesis of diseases. Physical and chemical causes of disease. Biotransformation of xenobiotics. Principles of free radical pathology. Pathophysiology of cell injury. Neoplastic transformation. The tissue response to injury: inflammation and immunity.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

The main purpose of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge on the etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms of diseases in humans, as well as the mechanisms of tissue response to damage: inflammation, shelter and adaptive immunity. Attendance at lectures and individual study will allow the student a) to know the causes of human diseases, b) to recognize the different responses of adaptation to damage, c) to describe and classify inflammatory responses and d) to describe and classify epithelial and connective tumors.

PREREQUISITES

To effectively address the teaching content, the following basic knowledge is needed: elements of cell and genetic biology; notions of anatomy, histology and physiology.

TEACHING METHODS

Teaching is organized in frontal classroom lectures for a total of 48 hours. The lectures are given by the teacher through the use of presentations that are made available to students on the Unige web classroom. In the period of health emergency the lessons can be carried out remotely by TEAMS platform.

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Fields of the study of General Pathology. Concept of homeostasis. Differences between the disease, the pathological state, process and phenomenon. Reversible and irreversible cell damage. Cellular pathology.

GENERAL AETIOLOGY: genetic and chromosomal disorders. Radiations. Trauma and wound repair. Burns and frostbite. Mode of action of pathogenic chemicals. Alteration of the pH. Solvent action. Denaturing action. Toxic action. Enzymatic defenses: Phase I and II biotransformation mechanisms. Causes of proteic malnutrition: marasma and kwashiorkor. Anorexia and bulimia. The water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins related deficiencies. Deficiencies in minerals. Obesity. Dietary relationships with atherogenesis and cancer.

INFLAMMATION

Definition, causes and stages. Chemical mediators. Vasoconstriction. Vasodilation, the active hyperemia and the consequences on the balance of Starling-Landis. The increase of the permeability and the inflammatory edema formation. The chemical mediators of cellular and plasma origin. Chemotaxis, diapedesis and phagocytosis. The passive hyperemia and its consequences; cyanosis and its mechanism; inflammation tissue suffering. The acute phase reaction: mechanisms, consequences and significance. Resolution and its possible outcome: healing (with recovered fully or outcome scar) and regressive diseases. Classification of acute inflammation: serous, fibrinous, mucous, purulent, hemorrhagic, necrotic, allergic. Chronic inflammation and chronic inflammatory infiltrate cells. The types of chronic inflammation (widespread and granulomatous). Granulomas: definition and etiology. Structure of tuberculous granuloma and its possible evolution. Notes on tuberculosis (primary complex, post-primary tuberculosis).

FEVER: Termoproduction and heat dispersion. Febrile hyperthermia. Types of fever.

IMMUNOLOGY: Generalities. Innate and adaptive immunity. Cytokines. Complement system. Antigens and antibodies. Cells of the immune system. Immune responses to infectious agents. Vaccines.

IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: Hypersensitivity reactions (I, II, III, IV type). Autoimmune diseases. Congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Tumor immunology. Transplant immunology. Immunosuppressive drugs.

CANCER: molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes and their activation. Alterations of tumor suppressors. Etiology of cancer. Initiation and promotion. Classification of tumors.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAROLA M.: PATOLOGIA GENERALE-EDISES

PONTIERI G.M.: PATOLOGIA GENERALE-EDIZ. PICCIN

Lecture notes will be available and shared on Aulaweb.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

LESSONS

LESSONS START

General Pathology lessons begin in the first semester generally in early October. In periods of health emergency they are held remotely using the TEAMS platform and the code to enter the classroom is communicated via the web classroom.

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

The exam consists of an oral test. In the period of healthy emergency, the oral exam can be held remotely in telematic mode.

ASSESSMENT METHODS

The oral exam will focus on the discussion of some topics concerning the program carried out by which the teacher will verify if the student has achieved the aims and learning outcomes. The ability to show, summarize and critically analyze the contents of the program will also be evaluated.