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CODE 80448
ACADEMIC YEAR 2024/2025
CREDITS
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/15
LANGUAGE Italian
TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
SEMESTER 1° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

AIMS AND CONTENT

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the course, the student should know the basics of plant biology, including the topics of cytology, histology and plant physiology described in the programme. The student should be able to explain and compare different ways in which cells and their vital subsystems function under specific conditions and/or in relation to different cell types. The student should also be able to remember and use the appropriate and scientifically correct terminology. It is expected that the student will thus have a competence that will enable him/her to undertake a more detailed analysis of cell homeostasis and metabolism in subsequent courses and to frame the cell as a functional unit susceptible to therapeutic and pharmacological treatment.

TEACHING METHODS

The course consists of 48 hours of lectures. Lectures may be delivered either face-to-face or remotely -via the University's IT platforms- at the same time as the presentation of slides via PowerPoint-type files. Discussion in the classroom or on dedicated remote channels is strongly encouraged. Some parts of the lecture will also be conducted in interactive mode, thanks to the availability of freely available web resources. Teaching materials are available to students on the AulaWeb site, via controlled access.

 

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

The origins of plant life
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
EVOLUTION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANTS: Phylogeny. Position of sporangia. Groups
main groups: algae, bryophytes, lycophytes.
SEED PLANTS (SPERMATOPHYTES): dominance of the sporophytic generation.
THE ANGIOSPERMS: eudicotyledons.
The genomes
THE NUCLEAR GENOME: THE CHROMOSOMES
THE CHROMOSOMIC DNA: repeated sequences, transposons.
THE REGULATION OF NUCLEAR GENES: regulatory sequences, transcription factors,
epigenetic modifications,
GENOME SEQUENCES: The Arabidopsis genome, plant genome duplications.
CITOPLASMATIC GENOMES: endosymbiosis, plastidial DNA replication, processes
post-transcriptional regulation of plastidial gene expression, exchanges between
plastids and the nucleus.
Plant cells
THE CELL CYCLE: transition from one phase of the cell cycle to the next,
molecular controls of the cell cycle, endoreduplication.

CELL DIVISION: meiosis, the role of the cytoskeleton in mitosis, formation
the phragmoplast, vesicular transport
THE ORGANULES: biogenesis of plastids and mitochondria, endomembrane system, vacuole.
THE PRIMARY CELL WALL: wall constituents, cellulose synthesis,
plasmodesmata.
DISTENSION AND SHAPE OF THE CELL: properties of the plasma membrane,
proton transport, movement of water across the plasma membrane,
functionality of the vacuole, the direction of cell distension.
SECONDARY AND CUTICAL WALL: structure and components of the secondary wall,
lignin, the cuticle.
Tissues
MERISTEMATIC TISSUES
PARENCHIMATIC TISSUES: the photosynthesis parenchyma, the secretion parenchyma, the
aeriferous parenchyma, the transport parenchyma, the reserve parenchyma.
TEGUMENTAL TISSUES: the epidermis, rhizodermis, endodermis, exodermis, peridermis.
peridermis.
CONDUCTING TISSUES: xylem: properties and formation of conduction elements.
conduction. Phloem.
MECHANICAL TISSUES: collenchyma, sclerenchyma.
SECRETORY TISSUES: secretory idioblasts, pockets and secretory channels.
Metabolism
CARBON ASSIMILATION:
PHOTOSYNTHESIS: light-capturing processes on the tilacoids of the chloroplast, the
chlorophyll, reaction centres, photosystems, the Calvin cycle.
PHOTORESPIRATION: modes of control of Rubisco, C4 plants.
THE TRANSPORT OF SUCAROSE: movement of sucrose the loading of the phloem.
THE ACCUMULATION OF CARBON
THE MOVEMENT OF WATER AND MINERALS: hydraulic transport mechanism, the
movement of mineral nutrients.
The development
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEMBRION AND SEED: endosperm, embryo, tegument.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROOT: successive stages of differentiation, development of lateral roots, external organisation of the primary root.
lateral roots, external organisation of the primary root, internal organisation of the
root, organisation of the primary meristem zone and the cuff, the zone of
determination, zone of differentiation, secondary structure.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STEM: meristematic stem apex, leaf buds the shape
of the leaves the leaf senescence, internal anatomical organisation of the
primary structure of the stem, the secondary structure of the stem
FROM VEGETATION TO REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT. meristems of the flower and
inflorescence, development of flower organs.

FROM THE SPOROPHYTE TO THE GAMETOPHYTE: the pollen granule, the ovule, growth of the pollen tube
pollen, self-incompatibility, fertilisation.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Recommended text: Smith, Coupland, Dolan, Harberd, Jones, Martin, Sablowski, Amey.
Plant Biology. Italian edition edited by Donato Chiatante 2011. Zanichelli Publisher.

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

LESSONS

LESSONS START

Lessons will begin as per the calendar and timetable prepared by the competent Teaching Secretariat.

Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

Oral examination on the topics described in the programme

ASSESSMENT METHODS

During the oral examination, the student will be asked questions of increasing complexity; on the basis of the answers, competence in the subject matter will be deepened; language property, use of appropriate terminology and correlation skills will also be assessed.