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CODE 72648


CHEMISTRY is the main science, basic and fundamental, for the study of basic knowledge and related methodologies and instrumental techniques for the study and investigation of the constitution of compounds and materials, their chemical stability and thermodynamics, processes natural or induced reaction and transformation.



This teaching has the following objectives: 1] Consolidate together previous knowledge of chemistry and physical-chemistry. Give further training on the existence, type of formation and thermal stability, thermodynamic properties, of all types of materials. Describe the main and possible reactive processes. Provide knowledge of the main chemical, crystallographic, thermodynamic and physical, properties of the matter. Describe the several classes of derived compounds and materials; 2] Give knowledge and provide direct practical experience, through measures and laboratory exercises, of the main and most important techniques and methods of chemical-physical investigation and the techniques available to analytical chemistry with related instruments (with more regard to those useful and usable in the field of Cultural Heritage).


An active frequency in this Course, more 'briefly definable
as "Chemistry, physics and analytical-instrumental for the diagnosis of B.C.",
with economic participation in both theoretical activities (lessons ed
numerical exercises in the classroom), which practices (laboratory experiences
Properties on Studio e
diagnosis in cultural heritage), can allow the student to acquire one
specific preparation and professional training in the field of
investigation and diagnostics for cultural heritage.

The quality and level of preparation that the student can reach
they are such as to enable it to:
• Acquire more profound and specific knowledge on training, stability
thermal and thermodynamic, crystalline structure of a phase or compound, and su
their relations with the mechanical and physical properties of different classes of
• Break away from study methodologies that may be more common
(learnings more 'purely based on theoretical and notional), for
bring it closer to more practical-real aspects, with experiences of
laboratory conducted in first person.
• To know the main chemical-physical properties of inorganic materials,
organic, metallic, ceramic.
• Get to know and make direct practical experience of the methods of
analysis and instrumental techniques of possible use in BC.
• Decide what type of study and measures to perform, in the
case of a diagnostic research
• Knowing how to use an analytical instrumentation, make measurements and evaluate the
RESULTS; connect the results critically, giving each one
relative weight, then definitively make a realistic diagnosis.


For a good understanding of the contents of the Course, and from this the obtainment of a greater profit, are very useful, if not completely indispensable, discreet knowledge of:
1] mathematics and basic physics;
2] periodic system and atomic structure of the elements;
3] basic inorganic and organic chemistry;
4] chemical reactions, types of chemical bonding, main classes of compounds;
5] stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculation;
6] thermodynamic quantities, phase equilibria in systems with 1, 2, 3 components.


The teaching consists of theoretical lessons and practical exercises. It is therefore held through lectures, followed almost in parallel by a theoretical-practical laboratory which is strictly related to the previous lesson.
In this regard, it is reiterated that attendance at lessons (although not compulsory) is strongly recommended because it favors a more rapid understanding, execution, management of data and results of the subsequent laboratory exercise.
Lectures in the classroom are delivered through oral presentations and related interactive discussions with the students; sometimes even with slide presentations, photocopies and slides projections.
At the end of each basic topic of the program (a set of lessons on a homogeneous topic) a direct discussion with the students is foreseen, through questions asked to evaluate: 1] temporary learning status of the topics covered (temporary level of knowledge and knowledge scientific and technical that allows them to follow the course in a fruitful way); 2] development of a more technical-scientific approach and mentality (critical and self-critical sense, further growth of meaning and practical skills), which could possibly lead them to evaluate and decide in a more autonomous way what to do (how, when, and in what sequence) to tackle an investigation and diagnostic work for restoration purposes.
The laboratory exercises are some individual, others performed for small groups (2-3 students). They consist in the practical execution of an experience, with the adoption of a technical (chemical-physical, analytical) date just treated in the lessons and with direct use of a relative scientific laboratory instrumentation. The laboratory exercises are carried out purely in the various DCCI laboratories, where the various equipment and instruments required are present and usable:
Teaching Lab IV-General Chemistry Plan
Teaching Lab IV-Physical Chemistry Plan
Lab. Research II-Physical Chemistry Plan.


The program of the course includes lessons for teaching and training on the following topics:
1] preventive calls of stechimetry and calculation, physical chemistry, thermodynamics and state, structural diagrams. Related discussions and numerical exercises.
2] specific weight, measurement techniques for solid bodies and liquid bodies.
3] preparation of micrographic samples, on different types of materials: metallic, ceramic, terracotta, stone (marble, stone, granite, plaster). (*)
4] hardness measurements with microdurimeter. (*)
5] optical microscopy, SEM electronics. (*)
6] principle of using EDX analytical microprobe. (*)
7] X-ray Diffraction analysis on powders on 2-3 samples of materials [of point 3)]; measurement of diffractogram data, identification of the present compounds, extraction of the reticular parameters. (*)
8] Thermal Analysis; principles and use of the technique and tools DTA, TGA, DSC. (*)
9] Spectrophotometric techniques: UV-VIS, IR (FTIR). (*)
10] Techniques and use of AAS (Plasma) spectrophotometry
11] Notions on use Polarimetry, of Refractometry.
12] Redox reactions; corrosion processes in the environment.
The part of the course dedicated to the Laboratory includes practical exercises, using the techniques and instruments treated during the lessons (from Point 2 to 9).

(*) Exercise which examines 2-3 samples of the materials referred to in point 3).


The main didactic and text material is provided to students, in the form of photocopies or in electronic format as a power-point file presentation, during lessons or before laboratory exercises. This material is sufficient for a good understanding of the topics (theoretical and practical) dealt with.
Students can however also use university-level texts of their possible choice.




For lessons start and timetable go to the following link:



The exam consists of a wide oral discussion; it can also contemplate a reaction-chemical process, with an example of numerical calculation.
The exam is strictly related to the topics covered in the lectures and the practical exercises carried out during the laboratory experiences.
The exam discussion consists of the presentation of: 1] presentation and discussion of a technical-scientific Report (or Review) chosen by the student; 2] answer to questions asked by the teacher, and approach to the topic of topics covered during the course.
The final grade results from the overall evaluation of the discussion, taken as a whole and including the two points mentioned above.
The exam is considered passed when the student gets a grade equal to higher or 18/30. The dates and number of exam appeals are published on the UNIGE website.


The details on how to prepare the various topics considered, and the various analytical-instrumental techniques dealt with, are communicated to the students during the lessons.
The final exam is divided into 2 parts:
1] Discussion of a Composition / Review (5-10 pages Word) inherent possibly:
a] one of the analytical techniques of investigation dealt with during the course;
b] a report that must constitute a 'critical report' or 'attempt to review', by the student, of an article just appeared in a scientific journal (in the field of Cultural Heritage, or similar) or of a project or restoration report (provided by the teacher).
2] an Oral.
The oral exam focuses on the topics covered during lectures and exercises. Its purpose is to evaluate not only if the student has reached an adequate level of knowledge.
In the overall and final evaluation, the content and outcome of the first two (above) tests will not be evaluated, but the ability to clearly and correctly display the required topics will be taken into consideration.


Regular attendance at lessons is strongly recommended; participation in at least 90% of practical and laboratory exercises is considered indispensable.

NOTE: students must be provided with a chemical lab coat.