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CODE 72481
SEMESTER 2° Semester
MODULES Questo insegnamento è un modulo di:



Formative aims: To study the thermodynamics of open or variable-composition systems with reference to the specifics of  non ideal systems.


In particular, the module will provide the operational tools for the prediction of chemical equilibrium in systems that exhibit behaviour that deviates from ideality.

 The attendance and active participation in the proposed training activities (frontal lessons,  exercises and numerical exercises) and individual study will allow the student to:

know the foundations of thermodynamics for non-ideal open systems;

understand the liquid / vapor state diagrams for systems that have partial or total immiscibility;

estimate the volumetric properties in multicomponent systems;

quantitatively determining the phase and reaction equilibrium conditions as a function of temperature, pressure and composition in non-ideal systems;

evaluate the possible operating methods for the distillation of azeotropic mixtures;

critically discuss the working hypotheses formulated using the appropriate lexicon.


The module traditionally provides frontal lessons in the classroom. Based on the evolution of the Covid 19 pandemic, the lessons can be telematic in sicron mode on the Teams platform. The presentation of theoretical contents (30 hours) are alternated by exercises (20 hours, that include exercises and numerical exercises) aimed at encouraging learning and the discussion of specific examples of process engineering applications. The course also includes expert seminars on specific supplementary topics of the course.

The transversal skills in terms of communication skills, ability to work in teams and learning skills will be acquired through the execution of numerical exercises to be carried out in a group, even with the use of commercial simulation software, which will be discussed at the exam.

As part of the innovation learning project adopted by the Bachelor Degree Course in Chemical and Process Engineering, novel tools will be used for the active learning of students. The goal is to increase students' skills via interactive, experience-based,
learning methodologies (e-learning, teamwork, etc.) for enhanced student participation, using an advanced level of communication that makes the student more aware and autonomous.


The program of the module includes the presentation and discussion of the following topics: 

 Introduction to molecular thermodynamics in non-ideal systems (20 hours): Generalized fugacity. Excess quantities and activity coefficients. Calculation of activity coefficients for binary and multicomponent systems. Duhem Margules equation. Thermodynamic consistency criteria. Fugacity coefficients for pure and mixed components.

Calculation of thermodynamic properties from volumetric data (15 hours): Equations of state for pure components and mixtures. Principle of the corresponding states: two- and three-parameter correlations. Calculation of the fugacity coefficients. Departure functions.

Calculation of chemical equilibrium in non-ideal systems (15 hours): Positive and negative deviations from Raoult. Phase equilibrium in non-ideal binary and multicomponent systems. Total or partial immiscible systems. Graphical representation of equilibrium for non-ideal systems. Reaction equilibrium for non-ideal systems.




The teaching material the educational material used during the lessons will be available in the web classroom. The notes taken during the lessons and the material in web classroom are sufficient for the preparation of the exam, but the following books are suggested as supporting and deepening texts.

-R.H. Perry, D.W. Green,“Perry’s chemical engineers’ handbook” VIII ed., Mc Graw Hill 2008.

-B. Poling, J.M. Prausnitz, J.P. O’Connell, “The properties of gases and liquids”, V ed.,Mc Graw Hill, New York 2000.

-Prausnitz, J.M., Lichtenthaler, R.N., de Azevedo,  E.G.:  Molecular Thermodynamics of fluid-phase      equilibria, III ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1999.


Exam Board




ELISABETTA ARATO (President Substitute)


Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy



The student evaluation includes an oral test in which 2/3 questions are proposed on the topics of chemical thermodynamics applied to open non-ideal systems presented during the lessons and in the discussion and evaluation of the numerical exercises performed independently by the student.

The grade obtained in the teaching will be the average of the marks given in the two modules in which the teaching is divided.

Three exam appeals for the ‘winter’ session will be available (January, February and during the teaching break provided by the Polytechnic School in Easter) and four appeals for the ‘summer’ session (June, July, September and during the autumn break provided by the Polytechnic School).

No extraordinary appeals will be granted outside the periods indicated by the Polytechnic school, with the exception of students who have not included formative activities in the study plan in the current academic year.



The details on how to prepare the exam and on the degree of deepening of each topic will be given during the lessons. The oral examination includes questions concerning mainly the application to the process of the topics of chemical thermodynamics in non-ideal systems presented in class and in particular will verify the knowledge of the tools for the estimation of thermodynamic properties starting from volumetric data for the calculation of phase chemical equilibrium, for pure components or non-ideal mixtures, and reaction equilibrium in non-ideal systems. During the exam the results of numerical exercises of calculation of non-ideal chemical equilibria for cases of technological interest, carried out autonomously, possibly in a group, by the student will also be discussed.

 The examination aims to assess the ability to apply the theoretical bases of the module to general or specific cases of technological interest and to critically analyze the problems. The quality of the exposition, the correct use of technical terminology and critical reasoning ability will also be assessed.


Exam schedule

Data Ora Luogo Degree type Note
10/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Scritto l'esame si svolgerà in aula B16
14/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
28/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Scritto
04/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
08/06/2022 09:00 GENOVA Scritto l'esame si svolgerà in aula B16
10/06/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
08/07/2022 09:00 GENOVA Scritto
15/07/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
06/09/2022 09:00 GENOVA Scritto l'esame si svolgerà in aula B16
12/09/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale


It is anticipated that students will have a solid grounding in mathematics, chemistry, physics,  thermodynamics of ideal system to be able to deal with the subject matter, but no formal prerequisite is required.

Students with DSA, disability or other special educational needs certification are advised to contact the teacher at the beginning of the course to agree on teaching and exam methods that, in compliance with the teaching objectives, take into account individual learning opportunities and provide suitable compensatory tools.