|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||CHIM/07|
|MODULES||This unit is a module of:|
Learn to describe, discuss and compare structure and properties of inorganic and organic chemicals (including polymers and biomolecules) involved in environmental and technological processes, with particular attention to atmospheric and water chemistry and pollution. Students will acquire skills and methods to deal with problems related to the chemicals reactivity and interactions.
Attendance and active participation in the proposed training activities and individual study will allow the student to:
-describe structures and properties of the main groups elements and coordination compounds
-identify the most common classes of compounds and reactions in organic chemistry
-analyze the chemical reactivity characterizing the most common inorganic and organic compounds
-evaluate the chemical reactions related to environmental processes and pollutants
-solve numerical exercises on equilibria in aqueous solutions.
The course includes lectures on theoretical contents, exercises and discussion of specific examples of chemical phenomena and processes.
Fundamentals: the concept of mole, reaction stoichiometry, chemical equilibria. Equilibria in aqueous solutions, acids and bases, pH of solutions, mixed solutions and buffers, solubility equilibria. Chemical kinetics: reaction rates and the effect of catalysts.
Organic Chemistry. Carbon hybridization and common functional groups in organic chemistry: IUPAC nomenclature, structure and properties. Hydrocarbons (fossil fuels and alternative fuels, PAH), compounds with functional groups containing Oxygen (alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketons, carboxylic acids and esters), Nitrogen (amines and amides), Halogens (haloalkanes, CFC).
Main reactions in organic chemistry. Homolytic reactions and heterolytic reaction mechanisms. Nucleophilic substitution at tetrahedral carbon, nucleophilic substitution/addition at multiply bound carbon, electrophilic addition and elimination reactions, electrophilic substitution.
Polymers and (bio)macromolecules. Synthetic polymers: addition and condensation polymerization, properties, reactions in the environment (combustion, biodegradation, photodegradation, recycling). Biomolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids. Biomasses.
The Elements: essentials of main groups elements. Hydrogen, Alkali, Alkaline earth, Group 13, group 14 (Carbon and Silicon), Group 15 (Nitrogen and Phosphorus), Group 16 (Oxygen and Sulfur), Group 17 Halogens. d-block elements and coordination compounds (essentials). Most common pollutants in water and atmosphere. Chemistry of NOx, SOx, ozone. Acid rains. Greenhouse gases.
Notes taken during the lessons, material in the aulaweb. The following books are suggested as supporting and in-depth texts: P.Atkins, L.Jones, Chemical Principles-The quest of insight, Freeman and Co. eds, R.H.Petrucci, W.S.Harwood, F.G.Herring, General Chemistry: Principles and Modern applications, Pearson ed. (general and inorganic chemistry, essential on organic chemistry); J.C.Smith, Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill Education.
OMBRETTA PALADINO (President)
ELISABETTA FINOCCHIO (President Substitute)
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
The exam consists of a written test that includes both exercises and theoretical questions with optional oral exam for those that obtained a mark equal to or higher than 18 in the written exam. Exam sessions will be available for the 'winter' session (January, February) and for the 'summer' session (June, July, September).
The written exam consists in solving with suitable methodology and tools problems concerning chemical equilibria in aqueous solutions. The student will be asked also to describe structures and properties of the main groups elements and inorganic compounds, as well as structures of coordination compounds and simple organic molecules. The ability to identify, compare and discuss the main reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry, the chemistry of the main environmental pollutants and the macromolecules structures and transformations will be also evaluated.