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ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION

CODE 101144
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
CREDITS
  • 9 cfu during the 2nd year of 10948 MARITIME SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY(L-28) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR ICAR/06
    LANGUAGE English
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    The course provides the principles, operation and accuracy of the main electronic navigation systems, including GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), to fix position and navigation. Then, electronic cartography and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) for the management, analysis and display of cartographic data are described, with particular attention to electronic nautical cartography (ENC) and the main features of ECDIS (Electronic Chart Systems for Nautical Navigation). 

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Principles of cartography and electronic mapping. Fixing position and navigation.

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Theoretical and practical acquisition of the techniques for the Electronic Positioning and for the treatment of Electronic Cartography, with particular focus on the nautical field.

    Elements for the treatment of observations to evaluate the position accuracy.

    Capacity of results analysis depending on the metric resolution of data.

    Use of free and open source software, when possible, in accordance with the directive of the Minister for Innovation and Technology, December 19, 2003 that encourage the use of these technologies.

    PREREQUISITES

    The notions provided by the course "Navigation" 

    TEACHING METHODS

    Theoretical lessons followed by practical lessons, to put into practice the notions learned during the theoretical lessons.

    Innovative teaching tools, such as instant polls, will be used both to stimulate students' attention and to test their learning.

    The course is held in English.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    The course provides the principles, operation, limitations, error sources and accuracy of the main electronic navigation systems, including Loran C, eLoran and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and its augmented services, to fix position and navigation. Then, the main elements of electronic cartography, geographic data format for data interoperability, and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) for the management, analysis and display of cartographic data are described, with particular attention to electronic nautical cartography (ENC), its content and quality, and the main features of ECDIS (Electronic Chart Systems for Nautical Navigation). The theoretical fundamentals of geodesy, reference systems, cartographic projections and of positioning are provided too.

    In more detail:

    Basis of Geodesy: The theoretical fundamentals of geodesy: The shape of the Earth. Gravity field and Equipotential surfaces. The geoid. Reference surfaces and datums. The geodesic line and Loxodrome. Theorems of operative geodesy.  Coordinate and Reference Systems, Reference Frames and transformations between them

    Numerical cartography: Cartographic projections and deformations. Nautical chart projections and Nautical position.  Numerical cartography: geographic data type and format for data interoperability in GIS, nominal scale and error of graphism, metric and semantic data, topology, metadata and interoperability. The EPSG codes for the management of different datum, georeferencing procedure. Electronic nautical cartography (ENC), its content and quality, and the main features of ECDIS (Electronic Chart Systems for Nautical Navigation). Practical lessons on management, analysis and display of cartographic data

    Basis of statistical treatment of measurements: Concepts of errors, concept of precision and accuracy; average, variance and mean square error of a function of observed quantities; Concepts of redundancy of measurements and their compensation using least squares adjustment, confidence ellipse. Practical lessons on statistical treatment of measurements

    Electronic Positioning: Introduction and principles of GNSS; Spatial segment: orbits; status of the constellation; Control segment. User segment: characteristics of receivers. GNSS signal: frequencies, codes C/A, P and D, emission and reception. Accuracy vs. errors: ionosphere and troposphere delays. Multipath. Reliability. Absolute, differential, RTK and PPP positioning: fundamentals, position correction, transmission protocol, system message. Hints on SBAS Augmentation Services. Influence of satellite geometry on the accuracy. Dilution of precision index. Suitability and accuracy of positioning. Hints on Loran C, eLoran and their integration with GNSS system. Practical lessons on GNSS Positioning

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Lecture notes and material provided by the teacher.

     

    Books for consultation:

    Hofmann-Wellenhof B., Lichtenegger H, Collins J.: Global Positioning System - Theory and Practice. Springer&Verlag, Vienna

    Leick A.: GPS Satellite Surveying, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey, USA, ISBN 0-471-05930-7

    Mikhail E. M.: Observations and Least Squares. University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1976.

    Burrough P.A., McDonnel R.A., Principles of Geographical Information Systems, Oxford University Press, 1998.

    Longley P.A., Goodchild M.F., Maguire D.J., Rhind D.W., Geographic Information Science and Systems, Ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2015, ISBN: 1118676955, 9781118676950.

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    BIANCA FEDERICI (President)

    LORENZO BENVENUTO

    VALENTINO PALMA

    DOMENICO SGUERSO (President Substitute)

    LESSONS

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    The exam is oral and consists of some questions to ascertain the knowledge of the theoretical concepts of the teaching and in the presentation and discussion by the student of a short personal application similar to the practical experience carried out during the Course.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    During the oral exam, the teacher will verify the knowledge of the theoretical concepts essential for a correct positioning with electronic systems and for the management of geographical data in the nautical field. Furthermore, the student will present and discuss a short personal application related to GNSS positioning processing (static and kinematic, in NRTK and Post-Processing), to the visualization of layers and cartographic elements in a GIS environment and to the evaluation of the cartographic accuracy of a route.

    The final grade will take into account the quality of the application carried out (originality, type of application, processing and analysis techniques used, strategies for solving any problems encountered), the critical discussion of the results obtained and the expositive capacity, as well as the knowledge of the theoretical concepts.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    20/12/2021 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    17/01/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    16/02/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    31/05/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    28/06/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    19/07/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale
    09/09/2022 09:00 GENOVA Orale