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TOSSICOLOGIA

CODE 104224
ACADEMIC YEAR 2021/2022
CREDITS 6 credits during the 1st year of 11158 APPLIED AND EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY (LM-6) GENOVA
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/14
TEACHING LOCATION GENOVA (APPLIED AND EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY)
SEMESTER 1° Semester
TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

OVERVIEW

Toxicology is a science that helps us understand the harmful effects of agents, or situations, can have on human and animal health, and on the environment. Toxicology tries to understand and identify the dose and through what mechanism the substances are hazard.

AIMS AND CONTENT

LEARNING OUTCOMES

The aims of the Toxicology module, is to provide the knowledge about the interactions between xenobiotics and humans and about the onset of toxic effects. The basic knowledge of modern toxicology will be provided, dealing with exposure and mechanisms by which xenobiotics penetrate the human body and the way in which they are metabolized and excreted. Some toxicity tests and methods for toxicological risk assessment will be illustrated. The main toxicity factors and target molecules of toxic substances, as well as the most recurrent toxicity mechanisms such as the production of radicals, alteration in the homeostasis of calcium, mitochondrial damage, embryonic toxicity and genotoxicity, will be investigated. Organ toxicity, such as neurotoxicity and blood toxicity, will also be addressed. Finally, the toxicity of metals, drugs and dopping will be explored too.

AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Students will acquire the basic knowledge of Toxicology, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, and learn the fundamental concepts related to the evaluation of toxicity in human.

At the end of the course, the students must know the toxicokinetic properties (time-action) of the xenobiotics, including the kinetics of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, demonstrating that they have understood the dynamic principles of the action of chemicals, including dose-response curves, biochemical and physiological effects of xenobiotics and their molecular mechanisms. The students will acquire knowledge of the toxicological tests and their interpretations. Furthermore, the knowledge of organ-specific toxicity and the effects on human health of different categories of xenobiotics will be illustrated.

The course will address the main toxicological agents and their targets, as well as, the most recurrent toxicity mechanisms, such as the radical production, alterations of intracellular calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial damage, genotoxicity and embryonic toxicity. The organ toxicity will be also introduced. Finally, the toxicity of some classes of substances (on the basis of their chemical-physical characteristics or their uses, such as metals, contaminants, drugs of abuse, and doping agents) will be illustrated too.

TEACHING METHODS

The teaching methods used will be the carrying out of lectures with in-depth analysis of the program. Therefore, the frequency of lessons is recommended

SYLLABUS/CONTENT

An introduction to the general principles of toxicology. Definition and aims of toxicology; toxicological responses: allergic reaction, idiosyncrasy, tolerance; local / systemic effects; acute / chronic effects.

Exposure route, frequency and duration of the exposure; dose-response relationships; threshold dose; hormesis; IT, log-probit transform and curve comparison; power and effectiveness

Toxicological risk and prevention: management of the toxicological data. Toxicological risk assessment for xenobiotics: hazard identification and risk characterization. Toxicity test: acute, subchronic and chronic tests.

Quantitative parameters (DL50, NOAEL, LOAEL, ADI, DNEL). Classification of chemicals. Toxicological test. Factors that influence the response to toxicological agents: individual variability, gender, age, intra-specie and inter-specie variability.
Toxicokinetics: absorption, biotransformation (phase I and II reactions: enzymes, cofactors), distribution and elimination of xenobiotics. Quantitative parameters: Vd, half-life, clearence. Induction and inhibition of CYP450.
Toxicodynamics: release from the exposure site and interaction with functional targets. Main molecular and cellular mechanisms of toxicity. Repair systems.

Carcinogenesis and chemical carcinogens: genotoxic and epigenetic substances

Developmental toxicology: teratogenic substances, mechanisms and kinetics; endocrine disruptors.

Organ toxicity: liver, kidneys, nervous system.

Toxicological agents: pesticides, metals, toxicological substances from plants, fungi and algae, bacterial and animal compounds; alcohol, drugs, drugs of abuse. Doping agents.

RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Casarett & Doull Elementi di Tossicologia (a cura di Patrizia Hrelia, Giorgio Cantelli Forti). Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.  2013
Casarett and Doull’s Tossicologia: I fondamenti dell’azione delle sostanze tossiche - Ed. EMSI, 2010
Galli C.L. – Corsini E. – Marinovich M.: Tossicologia - Ed. Piccin, 2008

TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

Exam Board

CHIARA CERVETTO (President)

MASSIMO GRILLI

MANUELA MARCOLI (President Substitute)

GUIDO MAURA (Substitute)

MARCO MILANESE (Substitute)

ANNA MARIA PITTALUGA (Substitute)

LESSONS

Class schedule

TOSSICOLOGIA

EXAMS

EXAM DESCRIPTION

To assess student’s achievement of learning, the examination will be an oral exam (30 minutes), always in presence of the Commission consisting of at least of two professors (or sometimes in presence of a professor and an expert subject designated by the CCS).

ASSESSMENT METHODS

The Commission will verify the achievement of educational objectives with high accuracy collecting information about the nature and extent of learning outcomes, capacity as well as connection and reasoning within topics of the Course. When the educational objectives will be not achieved, the Student will be invited to verify better the knowledge and possibly to use supplemental explanations contacting the professor.

Exam schedule

Date Time Location Type Notes
17/01/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale
07/02/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale
06/06/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale
22/06/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale
06/07/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale
20/07/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale
06/09/2022 09:30 GENOVA Orale