|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/16|
Prerequisites (for future units)
The module of Human Anatomy is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of the human body. After studying the teaching material, the student will be able to: Use anatomical terminology to describe the major organs of each system covered. Explain interrelationships among molecular, cellular, tissue and organ functions in each system. Describe the interdependency and interactions of the systems. Lectures and online resources will address topics covering all the systems of the human body.
The Human Anatomy course aims to provide the student with the main concepts and information necessary to understand the organization, morphology, microscopic structure and functioning of the different systems of the human body. Particular emphasis will be given to the description of the skeletal system, the nervous system, and the microscopic structure of the different organs. The organization of the course is based on interactive lectures that make use of visual aids.
At the end of the course, the student will demonstrate to have acquired the necessary knowledge of human anatomy with particular reference to the anatomy of the skeletal system, nervous system and microscopic anatomy and to have understood the correlation between the structural organization of organs and systems and their functions.
The teaching activity is organized in lectures for a total amount of time of 48 hours. During these lectures all the issues the student have to know for the final exam will be explained and discussed with the help of visual aids.
Introduction to human anatomy
Anatomical terminology, positional terms. Tissues, organs, and systems. General organization of hollow organs and full organs.
Generalities about bones. Classification of the joints. The axial skeleton: the skull, the vertebral column, the thoracic cage. The appendicular skeleton: the pelvic girdle and the lower limb, the scapular girdle and the upper limb. Generalities on muscles and their classification. The diaphragm muscle. Abdominal muscles.
Elements of regional anatomy
Head. Trunk: thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Skin. Skin adnexa.
Cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
Organization of the cardiovascular system. Morphology and structure of the heart. The heart valves. The conduction system of the heart. Structure of arteries, capillaries, and veins. Organization of the lymphatic system. Structure of the lymphatic vessels.
Organization of the immune system. Primary lymphoid organs: bone marrow, thymus. Secondary lymphoid organs: lymph nodes, spleen, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
Organization of the nervous system. The meninges. The ventricles. The barriers of the nervous system. The spinal cord: external configuration, organization of the grey and white matter, organization of the spinal nerve. The brainstem: external configuration, main proper nuclei, the reticular formation, cranial nerve nuclei, cranial nerves (elements). The cerebellum: external configuration, the intrinsic nuclei, structure of the cerebellar cortex. The diencephalon: organization of thalamus and hypothalamus; generalities on subthalamus and epithalamus. The telencephalon: external configuration, structure of the cerebral cortex, the telencephalic nuclei, the limbic system and hippocampus, organization of the white matter; functional anatomy of the telencephalon.
Afferent compartment. General somatic sensitivity: the receptors and pathways of general somatic sensitivity. Specific sensitivity: the receptors for smell and the olfactory pathway, the receptors for taste and the gustatory pathway, the eye and the optical pathways, the ear and the acoustic and vestibular pathways.
Efferent compartment. Motor control pathways (pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems), basal ganglia (elements). Visceral nervous system: orthosympathetic and parasympathetic.
Introduction to the endocrine system. Morphology and structure of the following organs: pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, endocrine pancreas.
Organization of the digestive system. Morphology and structure of the following organs: oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Morphology and structure of liver and pancreas.
Organization of the respiratory system. The external nose and nasal cavities. The paranasal sinuses (hints). Morphology and structure of the following organs: nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs. The functional unit of the lung: the lung acinus. Pleurae.
Organization of the urinary system. Morphology and structure of the kidneys. The functional unit of the kidney: the nephron. Morphology and structure of the urinary excretory tract.
Male reproductive system
Organization of the male reproductive system. Morphology and structure of the following organs: testis, spermatic tract and attached glands.
Female reproductive system
Organization of the female reproductive system. Morphology and structure of the following organs: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus. Ovarian cycle and uterine cycle. Mammary gland.
Gerard J Tortora e Mark T. Nielsen
Principi di Anatomia Umana
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
A.L Kierszenbaum, L.L. Tres. Istologia. Dalle basi molecolari alle correlazioni cliniche. Edra
M.H. Ross, W. Pawlina. Istologia. Testo e atlante. Con elementi di biologia cellulare e molecolare. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
Keynote presentations in PDF format can be downloaded from AulaWEB.
FABIO GIUSEPPE GHIOTTO (President)
The knowledge and understanding of the morphology and structure of organs and systems of the human body will be assessed. Moreover, the comprehension of how the organ structure determines its own function will be evaluated.