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CHEMISTRY 1

CODE 56971
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 12 cfu during the 1st year of 8721 INGEGNERIA NAUTICA (L-9) - LA SPEZIA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR CHIM/07
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • LA SPEZIA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    MODULES This unit is a module of:
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    OVERVIEW

    Study of chemical and chemical-physical basic of technologies, with particular reference to materials, properties and interaction with the environment, providing a synthesis of common principles of state and transformation of matter.

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    This course provides the fundamental chemical knowledge and chemical and physical atomic structure, chemical bonding, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics essential for understanding of the state and the transformation of matter , of natural phenomena and environmental and nature of technological processes .

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The training activities proposed in the form of lectures, exercises and numerical applications, associated to the individual study, will allow the student to:

    know the atomic structure;

    understand the mechanisms of strong and weak chemical bond formation;

    know the structure of solids, liquids and understand the gas state equations;

    understand the relationships between electrical, magnetic and mechanical structure and properties;

    to know the main thermodynamic and kinetic variables involved in the transformation of matter;

    evaluate the conditions of the chemical equilibrium;

    determine quantitatively the equilibriums in gas phase and in aqueous solutions;

    understand the fundamental structure-property relationships in the macromolecules;

    discuss all the proposed activities with a scientific method and appropriate language.

    TEACHING METHODS

    Lectures and exercises in the classroom. The assessment of learning and operational skills during the course will take place through the monitoring carried out during the numerical exercises.

    The transversal skills in terms of independence of judgment will be acquired through the classroom performance of the exercises to be carried out in a group.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    Nature of the matter: composition of the atom and its stabiliyi; mattre-energy interaction; quantization of energy and wave nature of the matter; Schrodinger equation an atomic structure; periodic properties of the elements; valence bond theory and molecular orbitals; band structure theory in the solids; amorphous and crystalline structure of solids; properties of liquids; perfect and imperfect gases; mechanical, electric and magnetic properties.

    Fundamentals of the chemical reactivity: first law of thermodynamic; enthalpy in chemical reactions; second law of thermodynamic and spontaneous change; entropy and third law of thermodynamic; spontaneous chemical reaction and Gibbs function; chemical equilibrium; phase diagrams of pure and mixed compounds; aqueous solutions, strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases, solubility of salts; rate of reaction and kinetic models; Arrhenius law, transition complex and catalysis. Nomenclature of chemical compounds.

    Polymeric materials: introduction to organic chemistry; relations between property and structure of the synthetic polymers (fibers, plastics, elastomers, thermosetting polymers, Tm, Tg, crystallinity, mechanical properties, conductive polymers); liquid crystals; environmental impact of synthetic polymers.

    Numerical applications: units; mole; formulas; atomic and molecular weight; chemical reactions; gas laws; concentrations; colligative properties; thermodynamics and thermochemistry; electrochemistry; shift of the chemical equilibrium; pH.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    The teaching material used during the lessons will be available in aulaweb, as well as the examples of final tests proposed in previous years with the related solutions. The notes taken during the lessons and the material in the aulaweb are enough for the preparation of the exam, but the following books are suggested as supporting and in-depth texts.

     

    Structure of matter and fundamentals of the chemical reactivity

    P. Atkins, L. Jones, L. Laverman, Fondamenti di chimica generale, Zanichelli;

    Autori vari a cura di M. Speranza, Chimica generale e inorganica, Edi.Ermes;

    Autori vari a cura di P. Tagliatesta, Chimica generale e inorganica, Edi-ermes;
    R. Chang, Fondamenti di chimica generale, McGrow-Hill;
    V. Lorenzelli, Elementi di Chimica per le Facoltà di Ingegneria, Genova, Ed. Univ.;
    D.W. Oxtoby, H.P. Gills, A. Campion, Chimica moderna, EdiSES;
    R.H. Petrucci, W.S Harwood, F.G. Herring, Chimica generale, Piccin;
    M.S. Silberberg, Chimica, McGrow-Hill;

     

    Polymeric materials, energy and environment

    F. Cavani, G. Centi, M. Di Serio, I. Rossetti, A. Salvini. G. Strukul, Fondamenti di chimica industriale. Materie prime, prodotti, processi, sostenibilità, Ed. Zanichelli

     

    Exercises
     

    R.A. Michelin, P. Sgarbossa, M. Mozzon, A. Munari, Chimica – test ed esercizi, Ambrosiana;

    M. Panizza, G. Cerisola, Esercizi di Chimica per Ingegneria, ECIG.

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    LESSONS

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    The exam includes a written and an oral exam with open questions.

    The written test must establish only the minimum level of necessary knowledge for the admission to the next oral exam. This test does not have a numerical evaluation and is based on the solution of 9 questions on the following topics discussed during the exercises and present in the appropriate section available to all the students in Aulaweb:

    1) Inorganic nomenclature;

    2) Balancing exchange ion reactions;

    3) Stoichiometric calculations or numerical application of the perfect gas law;

    4) Radiochemistry or representation of the electronic configurations of atoms and molecules or chemical bond;

    5) Thermodynamic laws and definitions or calculation of the pH of strong acids and bases;

    6) Structure, properties, synthesis of polymers or calculation of the reaction heat;

    7) Calculation of the equilibrium constant or composition;

    8) Description of a state diagram or description of the relationship between the structure and a property or kinetics and catalysts;

    9) Calculation of pH of weak acids and bases or organic nomenclature or metallurgy and corrosion.

    The written test is considered passed with a number of correct answers greater or equal than to 5. 3 appeals will be available in the winter session and 3 in the summer session.

    The oral exam is structured on 3 questions of weight 10/30, one for each of the 3 chapters related to: 1) structure of matter; 2) transformation of matter; 3) relationships between structure and properties of materials. In more detail, for each chapter one of the 16 questions listed below will be placed.

    Part 1:

    E.M. waves, spectra and color; E.M. waves associated with particles; Quantum numbers; Radioactivity; Diatomic molecule configurations; σ and π bonds; Hybridization; Polar molecules; Delocalized electrons and resonance; Weak and hydrogen bonds; Theory of the bands and solids bond; Metal structures; Ionic lattices and reticular energy; Defects and surface; Kinetic theory and gas laws.

    Part 2:

    First TD principle and enthalpy; Second TD principle and entropy; Gibbs energy and chemical equilibrium; Equilibrium constant and temperature; Equilibrium constant and pressure; Solubility product; pH definition and calculation; Weak acids and bases in water; Hydrolysis of salts and pH; pH of buffer solutions; Reaction rate and kinetic equations; Collisions theory; Magnetic and electric properties; Chain and steps polymerisations; Polymer degradation.

    Part 3:

    Chemical character of the elements; Diamond and graphite; Polarity and status changes; Alloys; H2O state diagram; Raoult law and distillation; Pyrometallurgy; Heterogeneous catalysis; Young's modulus in polymers; Molecular weight in polymers; Crystallinity in polymers; Effect of T in polymers; Viscosity of polymers; Liquid crystals; Polysiloxanes.

    For each written test passed 2 oral appeals are possible in the same session.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    The exam tests with the student will allow:
    evaluate the knowledge of the atomic structure;
    verify the understanding of the mechanisms of strong and weak chemical bond formation;
    evaluate understanding of the structure of solids, liquids and understanding of the gas state equations;
    evaluate the ability to identify the relationships between electrical, magnetic and mechanical structure and properties;
    to evaluate the knowledge of the main thermodynamic and kinetic quantities involved in the transformation of matter and the conditions of the chemical equilibrium;
    verify the ability in the quantitative evaluation of gaseous equilibriums and in aqueous solutions;

    evaluate the fundamental structure-property relationships in the macromolecules;

    discuss all the proposed activities with a scientific method and appropriate language.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes