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TECHNIQUES OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

CODE 68478
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 3 cfu during the 2nd year of 9293 TECNICHE DI LABORATORIO BIOMEDICO(L/SNT3) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR MED/46
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    MODULES This unit is a module of:
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Clinical Chemistry

    • Provide the theoretical basis related to the techniques of Clinical Chemistry: photometry, spectrophotometry, turbidimetry, nephelometry, indirect potentiometry;
    • Provide the ability to verify the correct operation of the instrumentation equipment through the calibration;
    • Illustrate some methods of determination of tests about clinical relevance;
    • Provide the ability to judge the performance through internal quality assessment and external quality assessment (EQA);

    Electrophoresis

    • • Introduction to the Electrophoresis and Specific Protein Sector: biological materials and collection; anticoagulants; treatment, conservation and centrifugation; identification of biological samples.

      • Electrophoretic session setup: electrophoresis principle and methods; Equipment and accessories (power supply, electrophoretic chamber, buffer, dye, densitometer); Stages of electrophoretic running (application, migration, coloring, detection).

      • Electrophoretic separation of proteins: standard electrophoretic profile; Fractions (albumin-α1-α2-β1-β2-γ): Specific proteins found in the electrophoretic tracing.

      • IFE (gel) electrophoretic immunofixation

      • Bence Jones Protein Research (gel)

      • Automatic electrophoresis analyzers

        

    TEACHING METHODS

    Online or on-site lessons, depending on covid guidelines, with slides available on Aula Web

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    Clinical Chemistry

    1.Introduction to the Laboratory: definition of the pre-analytical phase, blood draw and not acceptability criterion of the sample; type of samples; anticoagulants; treatment, transportation, centrifugation and storage of samples.

    2. Instrumental analytical techniques: photometric characteristics of light, interaction between matter and radiant energy, Lambert – Beer law, absorbance and calibration curve, zeroing against blank; general principles of photometry and spectrophotometry; single beam spectrophotometer, double beam spectrophotometer; turbidimetry; nephelometry.

    3. Clinical applications: spectrophotometry with direct methods, spectrophotometry with indirect methods; colorimetric reactions; enzymatic reactions, primary reactions and couple reactions, NAD and NADP dependent enzymatic reactions; enzymatic- colorimetric reactions, Trinder end point method.

    4 Indirect potentiometry: principle of this method.

    5. Methods of determination of important tests about clinical relevance (SGOT, SGPT, gGT, PCE and dibucaine number, LDH, Total and Direct Bilirubin, CPK, Alkaline Phosphatase, Amylase and Pancreatic Amylase, Lipase, Urea and BUN, Creatinine, Uric Acid, calculation of clearance endogenous, Iron, Ferritin, Glucose, total Cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C, Triglyceride, APO A B, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, phosphorous, Magnesium): Methods, interpretation of clinical data and interferences.

    6. Quality assessment: precision and accuracy of the analytical date; specificity and sensitivity of the method; types of error; calibration: definition of detection limit and levels detectable; internal quality assessment, external quality assessment; dilutions.

    Electrophoresis

    • Electrophoresis and specific proteins, biological samples  and their collections. General characteristics of proteins, overview of their structure and function, methods for their assay• automatic equipments and their functioning. Electrophoretic separation of  serum proteins•  Electrophoretic standard profile: protein fractions (albumin-α1-α2-β1-β2-γ globulins) •  specific proteins of the electrophoretic pattern.  Gammapathies, Electrophoretic Immunofixation  (EIF): principles and methods• Interpretation of the results, evaluation of normal and pathological patterns. Urinary electrophoresis. Search for Bence Jones protein • Methodology • Interpretatione of the results • Immunosubtraction and interpretation of the results. Definition of electrophoresis, electrophoretic techniques: principles, equipments and accessories (power supply,  electrophoretic chamber, buffer, dyes, densitometer) • Protein migration and conditioning factors (voltage,  frictional force,  migration rate, electrophoretic mobility; sample;  buffer solution; ionic strength;  Joule effect; electroendosmosis) • implementation methods: free or front phase; on sifting and non sifting support or zonal • zonal electrophoresis of serum proteins on paper,  cellulose acetate, agarose gel and in capillary • Methodology • Interpretation of migration and of graphics in capillary •evaluation of normal and pathological patterns• Comparison between methods.   

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    MARIO PASSALACQUA (President)

    ELISABETTA FRATERNALE

    LAURA MARCOMINI

    MADDALENA MASTROGIACOMO

    ELENA ZOCCHI (President and Coordinator of Integrated Course)

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    For lessons start and timetable go to the link: https://easyacademy.unige.it/portalestudenti/

    Please check the module Aulaweb page for timetable updates dependent on the sanitary and epidemic situation.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Multiple choice exam of the knowledge acquired, among which the definition of the basic elements of the subject.

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Test in classroom by multiple choice assessment questionnaire.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    11/01/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto
    01/02/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto
    17/02/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto
    09/06/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto
    05/07/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto
    19/07/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto
    15/09/2023 14:00 GENOVA Scritto