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HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

CODE 66900
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 5 cfu during the 2nd year of 8756 BIOTECNOLOGIE (L-2) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR BIO/09
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER 1° Semester
    MODULES This unit is a module of:
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The course will give the fundamental principles of cellular physiology to understand the mechanisms at the basis of the function of human tissues and organs. Students will acquire basic knowledge on how main tissues and organs of the human body work, their complex relationships and the control systems to maintain homeostasis. The laboratory activity will integrate the contents of the lectures with experimental models and methods to evaluate the main physiological parameters.

    TEACHING METHODS

    The teaching activity is organized in lectures for a total amount of time of 64 hours. During these lectures all the issues the student have to know for the final exam will be explained and discussed with the help of visual aids.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    Cell membrane functions: transport across cell membrane. Passive and active transports (primary and secondary). Ion Channels and pumps

    Resting membrane potential. Local and graduate potential. Excitable membranes. Structure and function of excitable cells. Electrical messages in the nervous system. Functional classes of neurons: afferent, efferent, interneurons. Specialized neuronal function: integration, start, conduction and transmission of the pulse. Action Potential: phases, threshold, whole or no law, refractory. Genesis and propagation of the action potential. Action potential in different types of excitable cells. Synaptic transmission: electrical and chemical synapses. Neurotransmitters and receptors.

    Neuromuscolar junction. Motility and muscle tissue types. Organization of skeletal and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle fiber structure and molecular mechanism of contraction. The role of calcium in muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle motor unit. Excitation/contraction coupling. Comparative aspects of muscle contraction: skeletal and smooth muscle. General organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. General organization of the autonomic nervous system. The sensory system. Principles of sensory physiology: transduction and codification. Adaptation. Somatosensory cortex. Somatic sensation. Somatic receptors. Spinal reflexes: general properties. Spinal cord reflexes: muscle stretch reflex, Golgi tendon reflex and flexor reflex. Motor system: reflex, rhythmic and voluntary movements. Role of the cerebellum and the base ganglia in the motor control.

    Cardiovascular system. Anatomy of cardiac muscle fibers. Myocardial specific and myocardial work. Cardiac electrical activity: heartbeat origin, conductive system, atrial and ventricular cardiac action potentials. Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and control mechanisms. Circulation. Blood pressure and its regulation. The microcirculation and lymphatic system. Capillary fluid exchange. Blood coagulation and hemostasis.

    Functional organization of lung and airways. Mechanics of pulmonary ventilation. Pulmonary Compliance. Gas concentrations and gas partial pressures. Principles of gas exchange. Transport of respiratory gases in blood. Nervous and chemical regulation of respiration.

    Kidney structure: the nephron. The iuxtaglomerular apparatus. Renal clearance. Glomerular filtration and GFR. Renal tubular functions: passive and active transports; reabsorption and secretion. Renal control of extracellular fluid volume and osmolarity: urine concentration and dilution (ADH). Endocrine regulation of renal function. Acid-base regulation.

    Anatomic-functional organization of the gastrointestinal system. Motility and secretions: saliva, gastric secretion, pancreatic, bile and enteric secretion. Liver functions. Nervous and endocrine regulation of gastrointestinal function. Digestion and absorption of glucids, lipids, proteins.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Gerard J Tortora e Bryan Derrickson
    Principi di Anatomia e Fisiologia Umana
    Editrice Ambrosiana

    Modulo “Fisiologia Umana”

    Alternative textbooks for the Human Phisiology part of the course:
    Silverthorn D.U.,  FISIOLOGIA UMANA un approccio integrato, Casa Editrice PearsonStanfield & Germann FISIOLOGIA, EdiSESD’Angelo e Peres FISIOLOGIA edi-ermes
    The slides of the presentations in PDF format can be downloaded from AulaWEB.

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    FABIO GIUSEPPE GHIOTTO (President)

    ANNA FASSIO (President)

    SILVIA GIOVEDI' (President)

    FABIO BENFENATI

    LESSONS

    LESSONS START

    October 2022

    Class schedule

    All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    oral test

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    The knowledge and understanding of the morphology and structure of organs and systems of the human body will be assessed. Moreover, the comprehension of how the organ structure determines his own function will be evaluated.