Salta al contenuto principale della pagina

MINERALOGY

CODE 57251
ACADEMIC YEAR 2022/2023
CREDITS
  • 9 cfu during the 1st year of 8763 SCIENZE GEOLOGICHE (L-34) - GENOVA
  • SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR GEO/06
    LANGUAGE Italian
    TEACHING LOCATION
  • GENOVA
  • SEMESTER Annual
    PREREQUISITES
    Prerequisites
    You can take the exam for this unit if you passed the following exam(s):
    • Earth Sciences 8763 (coorte 2022/2023)
    • GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY WITH LABORATORY 87055
    Prerequisites (for future units)
    This unit is a prerequisite for:
    • Earth Sciences 8763 (coorte 2022/2023)
    • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS 65849
    • GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND CARTOGRAPHY 104651
    • OCEANOGRPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION 61674
    • ELEMENTS OF GEORESOURCES 61663
    • EARTHQUAKES DYNAMICS 98685
    • OPERATIVE GIS TOOLS 98963
    • GEOSTATISTICS FOR NATURAL RESOURCES 101741
    • TRAINING AND ORIENTATION APPRENTICESHIP 104621
    • PETROGRAPHY MOD 2 65582
    • ENGINERING GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION 62223
    • ENGINERING GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY 62222
    • FIELD GEOLOGY 1 80250
    • INTRODUCTION TO GEOLOGICAL MAPS 80251
    • PETROGRAPHY MOD 1 65581
    • ELEMENTS OF HYDROLOGY AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY 61673
    TEACHING MATERIALS AULAWEB

    AIMS AND CONTENT

    LEARNING OUTCOMES

    The aim of the course is to provide a basic knowledge of morphology, crystal structure, investigation methods in X-ray crystallography, and crystal chemistry of the minerals. On the basis of these aspects a classification and description of the main minerals, primarily rock forming minerals, is supplied together with their chemical and physical properties, focusing the optical ones. The macro and microscopic observations of mineral properties are described and a method of systematic optical study of transparent crystals is showed using polarized transmitted light microscopy.

    AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

    To know: the structure, the crystal-chemistry and the classification of minerals; the main minerals and their distribution; the physical properties of minerals; identify the minerals that make up the rocks both on a macroscopic scale and in a thin section.

    PREREQUISITES

    Principles of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Laboratory.

    TEACHING METHODS

    The teaching consists of some lectures and a part of a theoretical-practical laboratory. Lectures in the classroom are delivered through multimedia presentations. The laboratory exercises are aimed at the practical application of the theoretical knowledge acquired during the lectures.

    SYLLABUS/CONTENT

    The course program includes the presentation and discussion of the following topics:

    Basics of morphological and structural crystallography

    Mineral definition. Amorphous and crystalline state. The crystal lattice. The unit cell. Fundamental laws of crystallography and Miller indices. Stereographic projection. Symmetry operators: rotation and rotoinversion axes. Crystal systems and symmetry classes. Survey of the main morphologies exhibited by minerals. The Bravais lattices. Symmetry operators: screw axes and glide planes. Space groups. X-ray diffraction theory.   Bragg equation. The powder method. X-ray powder diffractometer. Identification of crystals by using the Hanawalt index.

    Basics of crystal chemistry

    Chemical bonding in minerals. Close-packed arrangement of atoms. Examples of minerals characterized by close-packed or near close-packed structure. Coordination polyhedra. Pauling rules Isomorphism. Polymorphism.

    Classification and description of the main minerals, primarily rock-forming minerals

    Mineral classification based on chemical composition. Description of the main morphological, structural, crystal chemical and physical aspects for the most common minerals, in particular the rock-forming minerals. Great attention is reserved to the silicate minerals and to their crystal chemical classification.

    Exercises

    Identification of the morphological symmetry of crystal models and stereographic projection of their faces. Exercises on reciprocal lattice, X-ray diffraction methods and crystal chemical aspects of minerals.

    RECOMMENDED READING/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    C. KLEIN MINERALOGIA Zanichelli, Bologna, 2004.
    F. MAZZI & G.P. BERNARDINI CAROBBI MINERALOGIA 1 - Fondamenti di cristallografia e ottica cristallografica USES, Firenze, 1988.
    C. CIPRIANI & C. GARAVELLI CAROBBI MINERALOGIA 2 - Cristallografia chimica e mineralogia speciale USES, Firenze, 1987.
    W.A. DEER, R.A. HOWIE & J. ZUSSMAN Introduzione ai minerali che costituiscono le rocce Zanichelli, Bologna, 1994.

    TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

    Exam Board

    CRISTINA CARBONE (President)

    ROBERTO CABELLA

    DONATO BELMONTE (President Substitute)

    SIRIO CONSANI (Substitute)

    LESSONS

    Class schedule

    MINERALOGY

    EXAMS

    EXAM DESCRIPTION

    Oral exam preceded by a practical test of crystallographic optics and intermediate evaluation practical tests

    ASSESSMENT METHODS

    Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of detail required for each topic will be provided during the lessons.

    Exam schedule

    Date Time Location Type Notes
    24/01/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    07/02/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    16/06/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    27/06/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    14/07/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    01/09/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale
    15/09/2023 10:00 GENOVA Orale

    FURTHER INFORMATION

    La frequenza regolare è fortemente raccomandata in particolare per le esercitazioni sui campioni macroscopici e su sezioni sottili.