|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||BIO/15|
Prerequisites (for future units)
This unit is a prerequisite for:
The objectives of this course are to provide the fundamental concepts of plant biology through the evolutionary, morphological and functional study of plant organisms and their constituents.
Objectives: To provide basic knowledge about plant organisms, preparatory to the study of drugs and active ingredients of plant origin that will be addressed in subsequent courses (in particular, Pharmaceutical Botany and Pharmacognosy). Course content: Evolution and classification of plant organisms. Autotrophy and heterotrophy. Similarities and differences between animal and plant organisms. The plant cell. Products of plant secondary metabolism and their pharmaceutical importance. Differentiation of plant cells: meristems, tissues. Organisation of plant organisms. Procreation of plant organisms. Cycles of the main chemical elements. Methods and techniques for the study of plant organisms.
At the end of the course, the student should know the basics of plant biology, including the topics of cytology, histology and plant physiology described in the programme. The student should be able to explain and compare different ways in which cells and their vital subsystems function under specific conditions and/or in relation to different cell types. The student should also be able to remember and use the appropriate and scientifically correct terminology. It is expected that the student will thus have a competence that will enable him/her to undertake a more detailed analysis of cell homeostasis and metabolism in subsequent courses and to frame the cell as a functional unit susceptible to therapeutic and pharmacological treatment.
The course consists of 48 hours of lectures. Lectures may be delivered either face-to-face or remotely -via the University's IT platforms- at the same time as the presentation of slides via PowerPoint-type files. Discussion in the classroom or on dedicated remote channels is strongly encouraged. Some parts of the lecture will also be conducted in interactive mode, thanks to the availability of freely available web resources. Teaching materials are available to students on the AulaWeb site, via controlled access.
The origins of plant life
EVOLUTION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANTS: Phylogeny. Position of sporangia. Groups
main groups: algae, bryophytes, lycophytes.
SEED PLANTS (SPERMATOPHYTES): dominance of the sporophytic generation.
THE ANGIOSPERMS: eudicotyledons.
THE NUCLEAR GENOME: THE CHROMOSOMES
THE CHROMOSOMIC DNA: repeated sequences, transposons.
THE REGULATION OF NUCLEAR GENES: regulatory sequences, transcription factors,
GENOME SEQUENCES: The Arabidopsis genome, plant genome duplications.
CITOPLASMATIC GENOMES: endosymbiosis, plastidial DNA replication, processes
post-transcriptional regulation of plastidial gene expression, exchanges between
plastids and the nucleus.
THE CELL CYCLE: transition from one phase of the cell cycle to the next,
molecular controls of the cell cycle, endoreduplication.
CELL DIVISION: meiosis, the role of the cytoskeleton in mitosis, formation
the phragmoplast, vesicular transport
THE ORGANULES: biogenesis of plastids and mitochondria, endomembrane system, vacuole.
THE PRIMARY CELL WALL: wall constituents, cellulose synthesis,
DISTENSION AND SHAPE OF THE CELL: properties of the plasma membrane,
proton transport, movement of water across the plasma membrane,
functionality of the vacuole, the direction of cell distension.
SECONDARY AND CUTICAL WALL: structure and components of the secondary wall,
lignin, the cuticle.
PARENCHIMATIC TISSUES: the photosynthesis parenchyma, the secretion parenchyma, the
aeriferous parenchyma, the transport parenchyma, the reserve parenchyma.
TEGUMENTAL TISSUES: the epidermis, rhizodermis, endodermis, exodermis, peridermis.
CONDUCTING TISSUES: xylem: properties and formation of conduction elements.
MECHANICAL TISSUES: collenchyma, sclerenchyma.
SECRETORY TISSUES: secretory idioblasts, pockets and secretory channels.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS: light-capturing processes on the tilacoids of the chloroplast, the
chlorophyll, reaction centres, photosystems, the Calvin cycle.
PHOTORESPIRATION: modes of control of Rubisco, C4 plants.
THE TRANSPORT OF SUCAROSE: movement of sucrose the loading of the phloem.
THE ACCUMULATION OF CARBON
THE MOVEMENT OF WATER AND MINERALS: hydraulic transport mechanism, the
movement of mineral nutrients.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEMBRION AND SEED: endosperm, embryo, tegument.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROOT: successive stages of differentiation, development of lateral roots, external organisation of the primary root.
lateral roots, external organisation of the primary root, internal organisation of the
root, organisation of the primary meristem zone and the cuff, the zone of
determination, zone of differentiation, secondary structure.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STEM: meristematic stem apex, leaf buds the shape
of the leaves the leaf senescence, internal anatomical organisation of the
primary structure of the stem, the secondary structure of the stem
FROM VEGETATION TO REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT. meristems of the flower and
inflorescence, development of flower organs.
FROM THE SPOROPHYTE TO THE GAMETOPHYTE: the pollen granule, the ovule, growth of the pollen tube
pollen, self-incompatibility, fertilisation.
Recommended text: Smith, Coupland, Dolan, Harberd, Jones, Martin, Sablowski, Amey.
Plant Biology. Italian edition edited by Donato Chiatante 2011. Zanichelli
Office hours: The lecturer -Prof. P. Giordani- receives students by appointment to be arranged by contacting the lecturer by e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org), at the Sturla seat of DIFAR, viale Cembrano, 4 Genova. If necessary, the lecturer can also receive students by remote connection.
PAOLO GIORDANI (President)
ANGELA BISIO (Substitute)
Lessons will begin as per the calendar and timetable prepared by the competent Teaching Secretariat.
All class schedules are posted on the EasyAcademy portal.
Written and Oral; the written examination, which may be delivered via the University's examinations.aulaweb platform, depending on the requirements and provisions in force and on the availability of the University's IT alulae, serves as an admission test preparatory to the subsequent Oral examination. The written examination involves a task based on 15 multiple-choice questions (and/or graphical questions, and/or correlation questions), each worth 2 (two) points, for a total of 30 points, to be answered in 15 minutes. The questions cover the entire programme covered in class. Successful completion of the written paper (obtained with at least 9 correct answers out of 15, i.e. a minimum mark of 18) allows access to the oral exam.
During the course, quizzes with game-to-learn approaches will be carried out to allow students to check their learning of parts of the examination subject and to make them aware of the methods and types of questions they will face in the final written examination; the marks obtained will not, however, contribute to the final grade, but are intended to highlight any lack of knowledge/understanding of the subject in specific areas.
In the actual examination session, the student must pass the written test, either face-to-face or remotely, as proof of an acquired basic knowledge: each test is in fact structured in such a way as to present questions (including graphical and correlation questions) covering all the macro-themes of the course. Passing the written test allows access to the oral test, during which the student will be asked questions of increasing complexity that may also include the topics that were the source of any errors in the written assignment; on the basis of the answers, competence in the subject will be deepened; language property, use of appropriate terminology and correlation skills will also be assessed. The student is also asked - albeit optionally - to self-assess both before and after the written test, then comparing the self-assigned grade with the actual grade in order to stimulate the correct perception of his or her own preparation, especially for those students who repeat exams more than once.
|07/04/2023||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
|20/06/2023||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
|04/07/2023||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
|24/07/2023||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
|08/09/2023||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
|26/01/2024||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
|15/02/2024||09:00||GENOVA||Scritto + Orale|
The course is supported by teaching tutors whose task is to help students overcome any difficulties they may encounter in organising their studies and preparing for the examination. Details on the frequency and modalities of meetings with the teaching tutors are provided during the initial lessons. Although it is intended for all students, tutoring is particularly recommended for students who have failed the examination several times.