|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
The teaching presents some advanced topics of thermodynamics through the observation of a number of phenomena in laboratory experiments and their discussion in the classroom with the aid of simple thermodynamic models, staistical mechanics and quantum physics. The topics covered belong to the physics of vacuum, systems at the tempeartures of liquid helium, superfluidity and superconductivity.
AIMS AND CONTENT
Acquisition of advanced experimental knowledges and methodologies of thermodynamics applied to low temperatures and to the detection of radiation, thermal sensors and associated electronics.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
The teaching goal is the acquisition of experimental knowledge and methodologies for the study of complex thermodynamic systems, such as superfluid and superconducting systems. Acquisition of basic background knowledge in vacuum technologies, low-temperature generation, and those of low-temperature devices.
The professionalizing value of technological knowledge in vacuum and cryogenics is emphasized, which are now used by many local and national research centers and industries (Thales Alenia Space (Mi), Kaiser Italia (Li), Simic(Cn), Rial Vacuum(Pr), Pasquali MicrowaveSystem(Fi), ASG(Ge), Agilent Technologies (To),...).
Skill growth is stimulated in the study of simple superconducting cryogenic devices, recently highly appreciated in the developments for quantum computation that are underway in several universities and public and private research centers (e.g., IBM Eegle/condor. Google Sycamore, Intel Horse Ridge,...).
Lectures in the classroom and 6 afternoon experiences of about 4 hours in the didactic laboratory of low temperatures. The texts indicated and the lecture notes, which will be published on the Aulaweb website, represent the main teaching aids. The laboratory works are introduced in classroom before the experience begins.
Vacuum: fluid sealed and dry primary pumps, turbomolecular, fluid, getter and ionic pumps, vacuum measurement with mechanical, thermal, ionic hot and cold cathode transducers. Cryogenics: Stirling and Gifford Mac Mahon cycles, pulsed tubes, gas liquefaction and Joule-Thomson expansion, nitrogen and helium liquefactors, magnetic refrigeration, dilution coolers. Temperature measurements: absolute and standard temperature scale up to mK, primary and secondary thermometers. Physics of some low temperature systems: electrical and thermal conduction, superfluidity and lambda transition, He-I and He-II and London model, thermomechanical effects, superconductivity and its experimental evidence, classification in type I and II superconductors, elements of microscopic BCS theory and forbidden gap, superconductor thermodynamics and elements of Ginzburg Landau theory. Physics of some low-temperature devices selected from: superconducting junctions (SIS), quantum interference device (SQUID), quantum dots (QDot) and single electron transistor (SET), bolometers and superconducting calorimeters (TES). Laboartory works: 1- cooling with LHe and measurement of the thermal input of a cryostat; 2- absolute Kelvin thermometry with calibration of a secondary thermometer; 3 - HeI-He-II lambda phase transition and superfluidity; 4-transition from normal conduction to superconducting state; 5- IV characteristic of a Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor tunnel junction and prohibited gap; 6. quantum interference in the SQUID.
Zemansky: “Calore e Termodinamica” ; G.K.White: “Experimental Techniques in low temperature physics”; R. Richardson, E. Smith: “Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics and Low temperature”; O.V. Lounasma: “Experimental Principles and Methods Below 1K”.
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
Ricevimento: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday from 2 pm to 3 pm compatibly with other teaching commitments. It is required to arrange an appointment by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
FLAVIO GATTI (President)
ALICE CAMPANI (Substitute)
In the second semester in 2024 according to the timetable that will be available on the physics degree program website.
L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.
Oral examination on the arguments of the course, or, execution of a laboratory work with presentation of the results.
Verification of the knowledge acquired in the interview or, in the presentation of the results of the laboratory experience. It will consist of a predetermined number of questions covering the teaching program and allows the examining committee to judge not only the level of preparation but also synthesis and communication skills.
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