|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR
The course deals with the analysis and synthesis methodologies of control systems for mechatronic systems. In particular, SISO (single input - single output) methods for linear and time invariant systems (LTI) are developed in the frequency domain. The course also aims to provide a concise overview of modeling and control approaches for multivariable linear dynamical systems in state space as well as linearization for non-linear systems.
In the final part of the course hints of the practical application of the concepts will also be given, with an introduction to the control software architectures in C++ with ROS2.
AIMS AND CONTENT
Provide the knowledge and acquire the skills for the design and implementation of control systems, with particular attention to the implementation on embedded systems of guidance, navigation and control solutions for autonomous and semi-autonomous vehicles.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
Knowledge and understanding: Provide adequate knowledge in order to understand the role of control systems for linear time invariant SISO (single input - single output) plants. In particular, the expected learning outcomes are related to the understanding of open-loop and closed-loop control solutions. Central are the concepts of stability of SISO dynamical systems, robustness to model uncertainties and exogenous disturbances.
Regarding the ability to apply knowledge, at the end of the course the student must be familiar with:
- Modeling simple dynamic systems, deducing their representation in the state pace and in terms of interconnection of transfer functions in the frequency domain.
- Carrying out the frequency analysis of transfer functions and structural properties in the state space.
- Evaluating the properties and performances of a control system (reduction / cancellation of steady-state errors in response to polynomial and sinusoidal inputs, evaluation of dynamic behaviors, role of dominant poles, bandwidth, etc.)
- Evaluating the compatibility of the assigned control specifications with the characteristics of the given system. In case of incompatibility, knowing how to reformulate new specifications compatible with the plant and the boundary conditions assigned.
- Synthesize a regulator for a given plant, capable of satisfying the specifications of dynamic and steady-state behavior.
- Implement a simple software architecture for control.
Autonomy of judgment, communication skills: The autonomy of judgment must be manifested by demonstrating understanding of the concepts and methods described in the course.
Learning skills: Learning skills will be measured (qualitatively) during lectures, receptions, and exercises which will be based on the maximum possible active participation. Final learning ability will be assessed globally and quantitatively in the exam.
Knowledge of general concepts and methodological tools of functional analysis and linear algebra.
- Frontal lectures (theory and exercises developed on the blackboard);
- Availability of course lecture notes;
- Class exercises;
- Illustration of the use of existing SW tools for the analysis and synthesis of control systems.
Part 1: Introduction to the problem of Automatic Controls, general concepts relating to open-loop and closed-loop control schemes. Introduction to the concept of robustness to exogenous disturbances and to parametric uncertainties. Practical examples of plant modeling and their control architectures.
Part 2: Introduction to linear models in state space and their structural properties. Introduction to observability and controllability properties of dynamic systems in state space. Lyapunov stability of the equilibria of dynamical systems in state space. Introduction to linearization of nonlinear continuous-time dynamic models.
Part 3: Review of the stability of linear time-invariant SISO systems in the Laplace domain. Closed loop stability analysis methods: Nyquist method, phase margin and gain margin methods, the Root Locus method.
Part 4: Closed loop performance analysis, both in the time and in the frequency domains (steady-state and transient regimes).
Part 5: Review of the synthesis of regulators: specifications of a control system; general synthesis methods for minimum phase plants; PID and general regulators in the frequency domain.
Part 6: Introduction to the discretization of continuous-time synthesized regulators for their digital implementation and numerical examples.
Part 7: Implementation of a control software architecture in C++ using ROS2 middleware.
Course notes will be made available by instructors and are to be considered the main course material. As for additional references on specific topics, candidates should consider the following:
- G. Marrro: “Controlli Automatici”, Zanichelli, 1997
- P. Bolzern, R. Scattolini, N. Schiavoni: “Fondamenti di Controlli Automatici”, McGraw Hill, 1998
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
Ricevimento: On the sidelines of the lectures or by appointment to be agreed by e-mail a few working days in advance.
FRANCESCO WANDERLINGH (President)
GIOVANNI INDIVERI (President Substitute)
ENRICO SIMETTI (President Substitute)
L'orario di tutti gli insegnamenti è consultabile all'indirizzo EasyAcademy.
The exam colloquium will focus on the course program resulting from the lesson diary. Control system analysis and synthesis exercises will be covered during the oral colloquium.