CODE 60318 2023/2024 ING-IND/09 Italian GENOVA 2° Semester AULAWEB

## OVERVIEW

The course deals with the theory and practice of dynamics and control of energy systems, both at laboratory and industrial scale.

## AIMS AND CONTENT

### LEARNING OUTCOMES

The course aims to provide students with the ability to understand and quantify the main dynamic phenomena in machines and energy systems, through dynamic simulation and control techniques. The simulation is implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment, which use is explained during the course. The exercises carried out in class mainly concern the static and dynamic modeling of gas turbines and related components.

### AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the course the student is able to:

- understand the dynamics of the main components of energy systems

- critically interpret the transient performance of the energy plants

- develop models of dynamic simulation of machines and energy systems

- evaluate the time scales of the main dynamic phenomena

- designing control systems for energy plants and related machines

- stabilize the control systems for process plants

### PREREQUISITES

Power plants course

### TEACHING METHODS

Lectures, practice and laboratory

### SYLLABUS/CONTENT

Introduction to the study of automatic controllers (Lesson A)

(notes are provided but they are not explained during the lessons)

Fundamentals on mathematical study of dynamic systems (Lesson B)

(notes are provided but they are not explained during the lessons)

Fundamental of dynamic linear systems (Lesson C)

Continuous and discrete state models. Linearization. Fundamentals of: Laplace transformation, transfer functions, poles and zeros, frequency response, Bode diagram, signal filters.

Exercises: C1) Linearization of electrical scheme of Fig. 3.1, with external disturbances. C2) Example of dynamic state model (example). C3) Linearization of water tank model. C4) Linearization of gas tank model (plenum). C5) State dynamic model of furnace.

Digital systems (Lesson D)

Data sampling. Z transformation. Numerical integration. Fundamentals of state-machine using StateFlow.

Exercises: D1) Discrete integrator and derivative, D2) Stateflow-based controller for a furnace.

Classical PID controller  (Lesson E)

PID structure. Tuning with Ziegler-Nichols oscillation method. Tuning with reaction curve. Tuning with poles assignment..

Exercises: F1) Empirical tuning of PID. F2) Tuning of PID for a furnace.

Dynamic models of energy systems (Lesson F)

Base equations. The “dynamic” and “lumped-volume” models. The “plenum” component. Time characterization.

Exercises: F1) Plenum model. F2) Automatic compiling of models.

Main components and dynamic models (Lesson G)

Streams and components Active/Inactive. Mixer-splitter. Matcher. Control valves. Rotating shaft. Piping. Heat exchanger. Dynamic compressor. Dynamic expander (gas and steam). Gas turbine combustor. Electrical generator. District heating burner and network.

Exercises: G1) Shaft model. G2) Pipe model. G3) District heating piping network.

Gas turbine control (Lesson H)

Gas turbine control. Micorturbine control. Externally fired microturbine control. Turbojet and turbofan control. Simplified mathematical representation of a gas turbine. Fundamentals of I.C.E. control.

Exercises: H1) Simplified model of GT. H2) Off-design of mGT. H3) Dynamics and control of mGT with and without a volume. H4) Instabilities of a pump/tank water system..

Compression systems (Lesson I)

Compression systems based on dynamic compressors; dynamic interaction between the compressor and the system; static and dynamic instabilities; surge and rotating stall; Greitzer model and the impact of geometrical dimensions on system unstable trajectories; techniques to limit the incipient surge in gas turbines and compression systems. Fundamentals of passive and active surge controls.

Control of power plants (Lesson L)

Control of steam power plants. Steam turbine control. Combined cycle control.

G.C. Goodwin, S. F. Graebe, M. E. Salgado, “Control System Design”, Prentice Hall, 2001, available at http://csd.newcastle.edu.au/index.html

G. Bacchelli, F. Danielli, S. Sandolini, “Dinamica e Controllo delle Macchine a Fluido”, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Bologna, Officine Grafiche Pitagora-Tecnoprint.

Information on reference material and literature are provided directly by the Professor.

Course notes are also available on aula-web.

## TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD

### Exam Board

ALBERTO TRAVERSO (President)

## LESSONS

### LESSONS START

https://corsi.unige.it/9270/p/studenti-orario

### Class schedule

The timetable for this course is available here: Portale EasyAcademy

## EXAMS

### EXAM DESCRIPTION

The exam is partially oral and partially devoted to the discussion of one project proposed by the student (and previously approved by the Professor): such a project must deal with the course topics. A few examples are reported hereby:

Example 1: dynamic model in Matlab-Simulink of an axial compressor for natural gas compression, coupled with the downstream pipeline and controlled by a PID controller

Example 2: dynamic model in Matlab-Simulink of a piping network for steam delivery around an industrial site, with regulation valves, and controlled with a State-flow controller.

Example 3: dynamic modelling in Matlab-Simulink of an Auxiliary Power Unit (simple cycle microturbine) for a passenger aeroplane, equipped with a constant speed controller.

Students with SLD, disability or other regularly certified special educational needs are advised to contact the instructor at the beginning of the course to agree on teaching and examination methods that, in compliance with the course objectives, take into account the individual learning requirements.

### ASSESSMENT METHODS

Written project in team working: this test will allow to evaluate the student's personal elaboration capacity of the class topics, as well as the attitude to put the theoretical notions into engineering practice. The writing is evaluated in its completeness, organization, clarity and completeness of presentation, analysis of the results.

Oral question: this test will allow to evaluate the logical ability of the student in demonstrating concepts addressed in class and justified / quantified by mathematical formulas. The oral exam is assessed through clarity of the presentation, correctness of the demonstrations, familiarity with the topics covered in class.

### FURTHER INFORMATION

Pre-requisites :

Turbomachinery and Energy Systems (Turbomacchine e Impianti per l’Energia).