|SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINARY SECTOR||M-FIL/01|
This course aims to introduce to theoretical philosophy, starting from the question of human nature and presenting the most relevant methods of philosophical research. Contemporary questions are put in relation to other forms of knowledge and in comparison with conceptual models offered by the philosophical tradition. This learning-teaching activity is intended to make the contents, the argumentative techniques and the ways of reasoning in use in contemporary philosophy familiar to the student.
AIMS AND CONTENT
Students will receive essential information about the contemporary discussion on human nature and on the most relevant concepts involved in it. They will be expected to acquire the capacity to reflect in a critical way about philosophical issues, and use suitable vocabulary to discuss concrete cases and examples. Students will learn to use their skills to build up opinions about philosophical themes founded on coherent and solid arguments. They will acquire the capacity to orient themselves in philosophical and argumentative texts in general, and to read them critically.
AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course, students will have essential information on some methods and techniques of philosophical research, on some basic questions that theoretical philosophy faces, and will have acquired awareness about the problems concerning the relationships between philosophy, natural sciences, human/social sciences, in their intertwining with the problems of human formation.
No prior knowledge of philosophy is required. Active participation is essential.
The course will not consist only of lectures, introducing the main issues of the course and analyzing concepts and problems, but requires active participation by all students. The participants will be involved in exercises of philosophical analysis and argumentation, in the clarification and discussion of philosophical concepts and concepts in common use.
The slides used during the lectures will be made available on Aulaweb.
Students with disability or other special educational needs are recommended to contact the teacher at the beginning of the course to agree on teaching and exam methods that, in compliance with the objectives of the course, take into account the individual learning approaches and provide appropriate compensatory tools.
For international students, a list of texts in English could be provided on request. The exam may be taken, in the required forms, in English, Spanish or German
Human beings, animals, machines
"We are not machines"; "I am not an animal" - these and similar expressions are part of common language. Are they really justified, are we really able to give reasons for them? Is there something that actually distinguishes the human animal unequivocally from all other animals and from machines? One of the tasks of philosophy is to question ideas that seem natural, concepts on which we rely in our speech, transforming tacit assumptions into theses that we are able to argue (or to review critically). This task is now made more difficult by changes in scientific knowledge and technology: the knowledge we have today about non-human animals, the projects to produce artificial intelligence and even artificial consciousness, the neuroscientific investigations on the human brain make the classic question about human nature - "what is the human being?" - particularly complex. The answer we give are, nevertheless, essential for our way to act and to think. This course offers some tools that allow a first orientation about the contemporary debate on human nature, stressing its relevance for our culture and our choices.
1) D.C. Dennett, La mente e le menti. Verso una comprensione della coscienza, Sansoni, Milano, 1997.
2) J. Dupré, Natura umana. Perché la scienza non basta, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 2007.
3) a third book should be chosen among following texts:
- F. Remotti, Fare umanità. I drammi dell'antropo-poiesi, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 2021.- F. de Waal, Primati e filosofi. Evoluzione e moralità, Garzanti, Milano, 2008.
- F. Remotti, Contro natura, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 2008.
- F. de Waal, La scimmia che siamo. Il passato e il futuro della natura umana, Garzanti, Milano, 2006.
- R. Bodei, Dominio e sottomissione. Schiavi, animali, macchine, Intelligenza Artificiale, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2019.
- P. Dumouchel, L. Damiano, Vivere con i robot. Saggio sull'empatia artificiale, Cortina, Milano, 2019.
- M. O'Connell, Essere una macchina, Adelphi, Milano, 2018.
- M. Rowlands, Il lupo e il filosofo, Mondadori, Milano, 2015.
- F. Cimatti, Filosofia dell’animalità, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2013.
- Y. Castelfranchi / O. Stock, Macchine come noi. La scommessa dell'Intelligenza Artificiale, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 2003.
- N. Cristianini, La scorciatoia. Come le macchine sono diventate intelligenti senza pensare in modo umano, Bologna, il Mulino, 2023.
- J. Barrat, La nostra invenzione finale. L'intelligenza artificiale e la fine dell'età dell''uomo, Nutrimenti, Roma, 2019.
For international students, a list of texts in English or in other languages could be provided on request.
Other texts may be indicated during the course. It is advisable to consult Aulaweb for updates.
TEACHERS AND EXAM BOARD
Ricevimento: The office hours for students will be announced when the schedule of the lessons for the second semester will be established. In the first semester and in the period of suspension of the teaching activity, reception is by appointment. It can also take place electronically on the Teams platform. For appointments please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Place: Room TA9 C.so Podestà 2
CLAUDIO LA ROCCA (President)
The course will take place in the second semester. The lessons will start in the week 20-24 February 2023.
The exam will be oral and consists of an interview on the scheduled texts.
The aim of the oral exam is to assess 1) the student's ability to orient her/himself in texts; 2) the student’s capacity to identify underlying concepts and argumentative techniques; 3) the student’s capacity to understand and carry out philosophical reasoning and to address philosophical issues. It intends to verify not only knowledge but the acquisition of skills of analysis and discussion of philosophical issues.
By agreement with the teacher, foreign students will be allowed to read texts in English or in other languages. The exam can be taken in English, Spanish or German.